Amazon S3 Bucket Management with C#: Part 10 – Uploading all files in a directory recursively to an S3 Bucket

Before getting started

Skill Level: Intermediate

Assumptions:

  1. You already gone through Parts 1-9 of Managing Amazon AWS with C#.

Additional information: I sometimes cover small sub-topics in a post. Along with AWS, you will also be exposed to:

  • Rhyous.SimpleArgs
  • Single Responsibility Principle (S in S.O.L.I.D.)
  • async, await, parallelism
  • 10/100 rule

Doing things by convention.

Step 1 – Add a method to get the list of files in a local directory

This isn’t the focus of our post, however, in order to upload all files in a directory recursively, we have to be able to list them. We are going to create a method that is 10 lines of code. The method has one single repsponsibility, to return all files in a directory recursively. It is not the responsibility of BucketManager.cs to do this. Hence we need a new class that has this responsibility.

Another reason to move this method to its own file is that this method is itself 10 lines of code. While you can have methods longer than ten lines, more than ten lines is usually the first sign that the Single Responsibility principal is broken. Most beginning developers have a hard time seeing the many ways a method may be breaking the single responsibility principle. So a much easier rule, is the 10/100 rule. In the 10/100 rule, a method can only have 10 lines. This rule is pretty soft. Do brackets count? It doesn’t matter. What matters is that the 10 line mark, with or without brackets, is where you start looking at refactoring the method by splitting it into two or more smaller and simpler methods. This is a a Keep It Super Simple (K.I.S.S.) rule.

  1. Add the following utility class: FileUtils.cs.
    using System.Collections.Generic;
    using System.IO;
    using System.Linq;
    using System.Threading.Tasks;
    
    namespace Rhyous.AmazonS3BucketManager
    {
        public static class FileUtils
        {
            public static async Task<List<string>> GetFiles(string directory, bool recursive)
            {
                var files = Directory.GetFiles(directory).ToList();
                if (!recursive)
                    return files;
                var dirs = Directory.GetDirectories(directory);
                var tasks = dirs.Select(d => GetFiles(d, recursive)).ToList();
                while (tasks.Any())
                {
                    var task = await Task.WhenAny(tasks);
                    files.AddRange(task.Result);
                    tasks.Remove(task);
                }
                return files;
            }
        }
    }
    

Notice: The above class will get all files and directories, recursively. It will do it in parallel. Parallelism likely isn’t needed most of the time. Any non-parallel code that could list files and directories recursively would work. But if you were going to sync directories with tens of thousands of files each, parallelism might be a huge benefit.

Step 2 – Add an UploadFiles method to BucketManager.cs

  1. Edit file called BucketManager.cs.
  2. Enter this new method:
            public static async Task UploadFiles(TransferUtility transferUtility, string bucketName, string directory)
            {
                var files = await FileUtils.GetFiles(directory, true);
                var directoryName = Path.GetFileName(directory); // This is not a typo. GetFileName is correct.            
                var tasks = files.Select(f => UploadFile(transferUtility, bucketName, f, f.Substring(f.IndexOf(directoryName)).Replace('\\', '/')));
                await Task.WhenAll(tasks);
            }
    

Notice 1: We follow the “Don’t Repeat Yourself (DRY) principle by having UploadFiles() forward each file to the singular UploadFile().
Notice 2: We don’t use the await keyword when we redirect each file UploadFile. Instead we capture the returned Task objects and then we will await the completion of each of them.

Step 3 – Update the Action Argument

We should be very good at this by now. We need to make this method a valid action for the Action Argument.

  1. Edit the ArgsHandler.cs file to define an Action argument.
                        ...
                        AllowedValues = new ObservableCollection<string>
                        {
                            "CreateBucket",
                            "CreateBucketDirectory",
                            "CreateTextFile",
                            "DeleteBucket",
                            "DeleteBucketDirectory",
                            "ListFiles",
                            "UploadFile",
                            "UploadFiles"
                        },
                        ...
    

Note: There are enough of these now that I alphabetized them.

Step 4 – Delete the Parameter dictionary

In Part 4, we created a method to pass different parameters to different methods.We took note in Part 8 and Part 9 that we now have more exceptions than we have commonalities. It is time to refactor this.

Another reason to refactor this is because the OnArgumentsHandled method is seriously breaking the 10/100 rule.

Let’s start by deleting what we have.

  1. Delete the Dictionary line from Program.cs.
            static Dictionary<string, object[]> CustomParameters = new Dictionary<string, object[]>();
    
  2. Delete the section where we populated the dictionary.
                // Use the Custom or Common pattern
                CustomParameters.Add("CreateBucketDirectory", new object[] { s3client, bucketName, Args.Value("Directory") });
                CustomParameters.Add("CreateTextFile", new object[] { s3client, bucketName, Args.Value("Filename"), Args.Value("Text") });
                CustomParameters.Add("DeleteBucketDirectory", new object[] { s3client, bucketName, Args.Value("Directory") });
                CustomParameters.Add("DeleteFile", new object[] { transferUtility, bucketName, Args.Value("Filename") });
                CustomParameters.Add("UploadFile", new object[] { transferUtility, bucketName, Args.Value("File"), Args.Value("RemoteDirectory") });
    

Step 5 – Implement parameters by convention

To refactor the parameter passing, To refactor this, we are going use a convention.

A convention is some arbitrary rule that when followed makes the code work. You have to be very careful when using conventions because they are usually not obvious. Because they are not obvious, the first rule of using a convention is this: Conventions must be documented.

The convention is this: Make the Argument names match the method parameters. Argument names are not case sensitive, so we don’t have to worry about case. Just name.

There are two exceptions to this convention. AmazonsS3Client and TransferUtility. We will handle those exceptions statically in code.

Now, let’s implement our convention.

  • For each Argument, make sure the associated parameter is the same name.
    • Change bucketName to bucket in all methods.
    • Change file to filename in the DeleteFile method.
    • Change UploadLocation to RemoteDirectory in the UploadFile method.
    • Change directory to LocalDirectory in the UploadFiles method.
  • Create the following MethodInfoExtension.cs.
    using Amazon;
    using Amazon.S3;
    using Amazon.S3.Transfer;
    using Rhyous.SimpleArgs;
    using System;
    using System.Collections.Generic;
    using System.Configuration;
    using System.Reflection;
    
    namespace Rhyous.AmazonS3BucketManager
    {
        public static class MethodInfoExtensions
        {
            public static List<object> DynamicallyGenerateParameters(this MethodInfo mi)
            {
                var parameterInfoArray = mi.GetParameters();
                var parameters = new List<object>();
                var region = RegionEndpoint.GetBySystemName(ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["AWSRegion"]);
                foreach (var paramInfo in parameterInfoArray)
                {
                    if (paramInfo.ParameterType == typeof(AmazonS3Client) || paramInfo.ParameterType == typeof(TransferUtility))
                        parameters.Add(Activator.CreateInstance(paramInfo.ParameterType, region));
                    if (paramInfo.ParameterType == typeof(string))
                        parameters.Add(Args.Value(paramInfo.Name));
                }
    
                return parameters;
            }
        }
    }
    

    Notice this class will dynamically query the parameters. AmazonS3Client and TransferUtility are exceptions. The rest of the parameters are created using a convention and pulled from Argument values.

  • Update Program.cs to use this new extension method.
            internal static void OnArgumentsHandled()
            {
                var action = Args.Value("Action");
                var flags = BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Public | BindingFlags.Static | BindingFlags.FlattenHierarchy;
                MethodInfo mi = typeof(BucketManager).GetMethod(action, flags);
                List<object> parameters = mi.DynamicallyGenerateParameters();
                var task = mi.Invoke(null, parameters.ToArray()) as Task;
                task.Wait();
            }   
    

 

Notice: Look how simple Program.OnArgumentsHandled method has become. By using this convention, and by moving the parameter creation to an extension method, we are down to six lines. The total size for the Program.cs class is 25 lines, including spaces.

You can now move a directory to an Amazon S3 bucket using C#.

<h3>Design Pattern: Facade</h3>

Yes, we have just implement the popular Facade design pattern.

Our project, and most specifically BucketManger.cs, represent an entire system: Amazon S3. When code is written to represent an entire system or substem, that code is called a Facade.

Go to: Rhyous.AmazonS3BucketManager on GitHub to see the full example project from this 10 part tutorial.

Return to: Managing Amazon AWS with C#


Amazon S3 Bucket Management with C#: Part 9 – Uploading a file with its path to a Bucket

Before getting started

Skill Level: Beginner

Assumptions:

  1. You already gone through Parts 1-8 of Managing Amazon AWS with C#.

Additional information: I sometimes cover small sub-topics in a post. Along with AWS, you will also be exposed to:

  • Rhyous.SimpleArgs

Step 1 – Alter the existing UploadFile method in BucketManager.cs

We need the UploadFile method to take in a parameter that specifies the remote directory, which is the directory path on the S3 bucket. However, if no directory is specified, the key should simply be the file name.

  1. Edit file called BucketManager.cs.
  2. Enter this new method:
    Note: We are in luck, the TransferUtility object has an overload that takes in the key.

            public static async Task UploadFile(TransferUtility transferUtility, string bucketName, string file, string uploadLocation = null)
            {
                var key = Path.GetFileName(file);
                if (!string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(uploadLocation))
                {
                    uploadLocation = uploadLocation.EndsWith("/") ? uploadLocation : uploadLocation + "/";
                    key = uploadLocation + key;
                }
                await Task.Run(() => transferUtility.Upload(file, bucketName, key));
            }
    

Note: This method is already added to the Action Argument, so we don’t need to update it.

Step 2 – Add a RemoteDirectory Argument

If we are going to upload a file to a specific location, we should know what that specific location is. So add an Argument for it.

  1. Add the following argument to ArgsHandler.cs.
                    ...
                    new Argument
                    {
                        Name = "RemoteDirectory",
                        ShortName = "rd",
                        Description = "The remote directory on the S3 Bucket.",
                        Example = "{name}=My/Remote/Directory",
                        Action = (value) =>
                        {
                            Console.WriteLine(value);
                        }
                    }
                    ...
    

Step 4 – Update the parameter array passed to UploadFile

We’ve already create a custom parameter array for the UploadFile action. We simply need to add a method for it

            // Use the Custom or Common pattern
            CustomParameters.Add("CreateBucketDirectory", new object[] { s3client, bucketName, Args.Value("Directory") });
            CustomParameters.Add("CreateTextFile", new object[] { s3client, bucketName, Args.Value("Filename"), Args.Value("Text") });
            CustomParameters.Add("DeleteBucketDirectory", new object[] { s3client, bucketName, Args.Value("Directory") });
            CustomParameters.Add("DeleteFile", new object[] { transferUtility, bucketName, Args.Value("Filename") });
            CustomParameters.Add("UploadFile", new object[] { transferUtility, bucketName, Args.Value("File"), Args.Value("RemoteDirectory") });

Note: There are enough of these now that I alphabetized them.

You can now specify the remote directory when uploading a file.

Go to: Part 10 – Uploading all files in a directory recursively to an S3 Bucket

Return to: Managing Amazon AWS with C#


Amazon S3 Bucket Management with C#: Part 8 – Deleting a file in a Bucket

Before getting started

Skill Level: Beginner

Assumptions:

  1. You already gone through Parts 1-7 of Managing Amazon AWS with C#.

Additional information: I sometimes cover small sub-topics in a post. Along with AWS, you will also be exposed to:

  • Rhyous.SimpleArgs
  • Don’t Repeat Yourself (DRY) Principal

Step 1 – Add a DeleteFile method to BucketManager.cs

  1. Edit file called BucketManager.cs.
  2. Enter this new method:
            public static async Task CreateTextFile(AmazonS3Client client, string bucketName, string filename, string text)
            {
                var dirRequest = new PutObjectRequest
                {
                    BucketName = bucketName,
                    Key = filename,
                    InputStream = text.ToStream()
                };
                await client.PutObjectAsync(dirRequest);
                Console.WriteLine($"Created text file in S3 bucket: {bucketName}/{filename}");
            }
    

Notice: The code is almost identical to that of deleting a directory, with only one exception. We aren’t ending with a /. We really should not have duplicate code. So lets fix this in the next step.

Step 2 – Solve the Repetitive Code

It is best practice to avoid having duplicate code. This is often called the “Don’t Repeat Yourself” principal. So let’s update the DeleteBucketDirectory code to forward to the DeleteFile code.

  1. Update the DeleteDirectory method so that both methods share code.
           public static async Task DeleteBucketDirectory(AmazonS3Client client, string bucketName, string directory)
            {
                if (!directory.EndsWith("/"))
                    directory = directory += "/";
                await DeleteFile(client, bucketName, directory);
            }
    

Now the delete directory code is no longer repetitive. A directory is the same as a file, just with a slash. So the Delete directory correctly makes sure that the directory name ends with a slash, then forwards the call to delete file.

Step 3 – Update the Action Argument

We should be very good at this by now. We need to make this method a valid action for the Action Argument.

  1. Edit the ArgsHandler.cs file to define an Action argument.
                        ...
                        AllowedValues = new ObservableCollection<string>
                        {
                            "CreateBucket",
                            "DeleteBucket",
                            "ListFiles",
                            "UploadFile",
                            "CreateBucketDirectory",
                            "DeleteBucketDirectory",
                            "CreateTextFile",
                            "DeleteFile"
                        },
                        ...
    

Note: There are no additional Arguments to add. To delete a file, we need the bucket name and a file name, which we already have Arguments for.

Step 4 – Fix the parameter mismatch problem

In Part 4, we created a method to pass different parameters to different methods. Let’s use that to pass in the correct parameters.

However, take note that we now have more exceptions than we had commonalities. This suggests that it is about time to refactor this code. For now, we will leave it.

            // Use the Custom or Common pattern
            CustomParameters.Add("UploadFile", new object[] { transferUtility, bucketName, Args.Value("File") });
            CustomParameters.Add("CreateBucketDirectory", new object[] { s3client, bucketName, Args.Value("Directory") });
            CustomParameters.Add("DeleteBucketDirectory", new object[] { s3client, bucketName, Args.Value("Directory") });
            CustomParameters.Add("CreateTextFile", new object[] { s3client, bucketName, Args.Value("Filename"), Args.Value("Text") });

You can now add a text file to an Amazon S3 bucket using C#.

Homework: There is some repetitiveness between CreateFolder and DeleteFolder. What is it? (Hint: Directories end with a slash.)

Go to: Part 9 – Uploading a file with its path to a Bucket

Return to: Managing Amazon AWS with C#


Amazon S3 Bucket Management with C#: Part 7 – Creating a text file in a Bucket

Before getting started

Skill Level: Beginner

Assumptions:

  1. You already gone through Parts 1-6 of Managing Amazon AWS with C#.

Additional information: I sometimes cover small sub-topics in a post. Along with AWS, you will also be exposed to:

  • Rhyous.SimpleArgs
  • Rhyous.StringLibrary

Step 1 – Add NuGet Package

  1. Right-click on your project and choose Management NuGet Packages.
  2. Search for Rhyous.StringLibrary.
    This is a simple library for string extensions methods and more. String code that is not in .Net by default, yet the methods have proven over time to be commonly used.
  3. Install the Rhyous.StringLibrary NuGet package.

Step 2 – Add a CreateTextFile method to BucketManager.cs

  1. Edit file called BucketManager.cs.
  2. Enter this new method:
            public static async Task CreateTextFile(AmazonS3Client client, string bucketName, string filename, string text)
            {
                var dirRequest = new PutObjectRequest
                {
                    BucketName = bucketName,
                    Key = filename,
                    InputStream = text.ToStream()
                };
                await client.PutObjectAsync(dirRequest);
                Console.WriteLine($"Created text file in S3 bucket: {bucketName}/{filename}");
            }
    

Notice: The code is almost identical to that of creating a directory, with two exceptions. We aren’t ending with a /. And instead of assigning zero bytes to InputStream, we assigned text.ToStream(). Rhyous.StringLibrary provides us the ToStream() extension method.

Step 2 – Update the Action Argument

We now need to make this method a valid action for the Action Argument.

  1. Edit the ArgsHandler.cs file to define an Action argument.
                        ...
                        AllowedValues = new ObservableCollection&amp;amp;lt;string&amp;amp;gt;
                        {
                            "CreateBucket",
                            "DeleteBucket",
                            "ListFiles",
                            "UploadFile",
                            "CreateBucketDirectory",
                            "DeleteBucketDirectory",
                            "CreateTextFile",
                        },
                        ...
    

Step 3 – Add FileName and Text Arguments

If we are going to create a text file, we need to know the file name and the text to insert.

  1. Edit the ArgsHandler.cs file to define an Action argument.
                    ...
                    new Argument
                    {
                        Name = "FileName",
                        ShortName = "N",
                        Description = "The name of text a file to create.",
                        Example = "{name}=MyTextfile.txt",
                        Action = (value) =>
                        {
                            Console.WriteLine(value);
                        }
                    },
                    new Argument
                    {
                        Name = "Text",
                        ShortName = "T",
                        Description = "The text to put in a text file.",
                        Example = "{name}=\"This is some text!\"",
                        Action = (value) =>
                        {
                            Console.WriteLine(value);
                        }
                    }
                    ...
    

Step 4 – Fix the parameter mismatch problem

In Part 4, we created a method to pass different parameters to different methods. Let’s use that to pass in the correct parameters.

However, take note that we now have more exceptions than we had commonalities. This suggests that it is about time to refactor this code. For now, we will leave it.

            // Use the Custom or Common pattern
            CustomParameters.Add("UploadFile", new object[] { transferUtility, bucketName, Args.Value("File") });
            CustomParameters.Add("CreateBucketDirectory", new object[] { s3client, bucketName, Args.Value("Directory") });
            CustomParameters.Add("DeleteBucketDirectory", new object[] { s3client, bucketName, Args.Value("Directory") });
            CustomParameters.Add("CreateTextFile", new object[] { s3client, bucketName, Args.Value("Filename"), Args.Value("Text") });

You can now add a text file to an Amazon S3 bucket using C#.

Go to: Deleting a file in a Bucket

Return to: Managing Amazon AWS with C#


Amazon S3 Bucket Management with C#: Part 6 – Deleting a Directory in a Bucket

Before getting started

Skill Level: Beginner

Assumptions:

  1. You already gone through Parts 1-5 of Managing Amazon AWS with C#.

Additional information: I sometimes cover small sub-topics in a post. Along with AWS, you will also be exposed to:

  • Rhyous.SimpleArgs

Step 1 – Add a DeleteBucketDirectory method to BucketManager.cs

  1. Edit file called BucketManager.cs.
  2. Enter this new method:
            public static async Task DeleteBucketDirectory(AmazonS3Client client, string bucketName, string directory)
            {
                var dirRequest = new DeleteObjectRequest
                {
                    BucketName = bucketName,
                    Key = directory + "/"
                };
                await client.DeleteObjectAsync(dirRequest);
                Console.WriteLine($"Created S3 bucket folder: {bucketName}/{directory}/");
            }
    

Note: Amazon S3 uses objects with a key ending in a / as a directory, so we have to call DeleteObjectAsync.

Step 2 – Update the Action Argument

We now need to make this method a valid action for the Action Argument.

  1. Edit the ArgsHandler.cs file to define an Action argument.
                        ...
                        AllowedValues = new ObservableCollection&amp;lt;string&amp;gt;
                        {
                            "CreateBucket",
                            "DeleteBucket",
                            "ListFiles",
                            "UploadFile",
                            "CreateBucketDirectory",
                            "DeleteBucketDirectory"
                        },
                        ...
    

Step 3 – Fix the parameter mismatch problem

In Part 4, we created a method to pass different parameters to different methods. Let’s use that to pass in the correct parameters.

            // Use the Custom or Common pattern
            CustomParameters.Add("UploadFile", new object[] { transferUtility, bucketName, Args.Value("File") });
            CustomParameters.Add("CreateBucketDirectory", new object[] { s3client, bucketName, Args.Value("Directory") });
            CustomParameters.Add("DeleteBucketDirectory", new object[] { s3client, bucketName, Args.Value("Directory") });

You can now Delete a directory on S3, using C#.

Go to:

Return to: Managing Amazon AWS with C#


Amazon S3 Bucket Management with C#: Part 8 – Deleting a file in a Bucket

Before getting started

Skill Level: Beginner

Assumptions:

  1. You already gone through Parts 1-7 of Managing Amazon AWS with C#.

Additional information: I sometimes cover small sub-topics in a post. Along with AWS, you will also be exposed to:

  • Rhyous.SimpleArgs
  • Don’t Repeat Yourself (DRY) Principal

Step 1 – Add a DeleteFile method to BucketManager.cs

  1. Edit file called BucketManager.cs.
  2. Enter this new method:
            public static async Task CreateTextFile(AmazonS3Client client, string bucketName, string filename, string text)
            {
                var dirRequest = new PutObjectRequest
                {
                    BucketName = bucketName,
                    Key = filename,
                    InputStream = text.ToStream()
                };
                await client.PutObjectAsync(dirRequest);
                Console.WriteLine($"Created text file in S3 bucket: {bucketName}/{filename}");
            }
    

Notice: The code is almost identical to that of deleting a directory, with only one exception. We aren’t ending with a /. We really should not have duplicate code. So lets fix this in the next step.

Step 2 – Solve the Repetitive Code

It is best practice to avoid having duplicate code. This is often called the “Don’t Repeat Yourself” principal. So let’s update the DeleteBucketDirectory code to forward to the DeleteFile code.

  1. Update the DeleteDirectory method so that both methods share code.
           public static async Task DeleteBucketDirectory(AmazonS3Client client, string bucketName, string directory)
            {
                if (!directory.EndsWith("/"))
                    directory = directory += "/";
                await DeleteFile(client, bucketName, directory);
            }
    

Now the delete directory code is no longer repetitive. A directory is the same as a file, just with a slash. So the Delete directory correctly makes sure that the directory name ends with a slash, then forwards the call to delete file.

Step 3 – Update the Action Argument

We should be very good at this by now. We need to make this method a valid action for the Action Argument.

  1. Edit the ArgsHandler.cs file to define an Action argument.
                        ...
                        AllowedValues = new ObservableCollection<string>
                        {
                            "CreateBucket",
                            "DeleteBucket",
                            "ListFiles",
                            "UploadFile",
                            "CreateBucketDirectory",
                            "DeleteBucketDirectory",
                            "CreateTextFile",
                            "DeleteFile"
                        },
                        ...
    

Step 3 – Add FileName and Text Arguments

If we are going to create a text file, we need to know the file name and the text to insert.

  1. Edit the ArgsHandler.cs file to define an Action argument.
                    ...
                    new Argument
                    {
                        Name = "FileName",
                        ShortName = "N",
                        Description = "The name of text a file to create.",
                        Example = "{name}=MyTextfile.txt",
                        Action = (value) =>
                        {
                            Console.WriteLine(value);
                        }
                    },
                    new Argument
                    {
                        Name = "Text",
                        ShortName = "T",
                        Description = "The text to put in a text file.",
                        Example = "{name}=\"This is some text!\"",
                        Action = (value) =>
                        {
                            Console.WriteLine(value);
                        }
                    }
                    ...
    

Step 4 – Fix the parameter mismatch problem

In Part 4, we created a method to pass different parameters to different methods. Let’s use that to pass in the correct parameters.

However, take note that we now have more exceptions than we had commonalities. This suggests that it is about time to refactor this code. For now, we will leave it.

            // Use the Custom or Common pattern
            CustomParameters.Add("UploadFile", new object[] { transferUtility, bucketName, Args.Value("File") });
            CustomParameters.Add("CreateBucketDirectory", new object[] { s3client, bucketName, Args.Value("Directory") });
            CustomParameters.Add("DeleteBucketDirectory", new object[] { s3client, bucketName, Args.Value("Directory") });
            CustomParameters.Add("CreateTextFile", new object[] { s3client, bucketName, Args.Value("Filename"), Args.Value("Text") });

You can now add a text file to an Amazon S3 bucket using C#.

Homework: There is some repetitiveness between CreateFolder and DeleteFolder. What is it? (Hint: Directories end with a slash.)

Go to:

Return to: Managing Amazon AWS with C#


Amazon S3 Bucket Management with C#: Part 5 – Creating a Directory in a Bucket

Before getting started

Skill Level: Beginner

Assumptions:

  1. You already gone through Parts 1-4 of Managing Amazon AWS with C#.

Additional information: I sometimes cover small sub-topics in a post. Along with AWS, you will also be exposed to:

  • Rhyous.SimpleArgs

Step 1 – Add a CreateBucketDirectory method to BucketManager.cs

  1. Edit file called BucketManager.cs.
  2. Enter this new method:
            public static async Task CreateBucketDirectory(AmazonS3Client client, string bucketName, string directory)
            {
                var dirRequest = new PutObjectRequest
                {
                    BucketName = bucketName,
                    Key = directory + "/",
                    InputStream = new MemoryStream(new byte[0])
                };
                await client.PutObjectAsync(dirRequest);
                Console.WriteLine($"Created S3 bucket folder: {bucketName}/{directory}/");
            }
    

Note: Amazon S3 uses objects with a key ending in a / as a directory, so all we do is put a new empty object with a slash.

Step 2 – Update the Action Argument

We now need to make this method a valid action for the Action Argument.

  1. Edit the ArgsHandler.cs file to define an Action argument.
                        ...
                        AllowedValues = new ObservableCollection&amp;lt;string&amp;gt;
                        {
                            "CreateBucket",
                            "DeleteBucket",
                            "ListFiles",
                            "UploadFile",
                            "CreateBucketDirectory"
                        },
                        ...
    

Step 3 – Fix the parameter mismatch problem

In Part 4, we created a method to pass different parameters to different methods. Let’s use that to pass in the correct parameters.

            // Use the Custom or Common pattern
            CustomParameters.Add("UploadFile", new object[] { transferUtility, bucketName, Args.Value("File") });
            CustomParameters.Add("CreateBucketDirectory", new object[] { s3client, bucketName, Args.Value("Directory") });

You can now add a directory on S3, using C#.

Go to:

Return to: Managing Amazon AWS with C#


Amazon S3 Bucket Management with C#: Part 4 – Uploading a file to a Bucket

Before getting started

Skill Level: Beginner

Assumptions:

  1. You already gone through Parts 1, 2, and 3 of Managing Amazon AWS with C#.

Additional information: I sometimes cover small sub-topics in a post. Along with AWS, you will also be exposed to:

  • async, await, Task
  • Rhyous.SimpleArgs
  • Dependency Inject (D in S.O.L.I.D.)
  • Reflection
  • Custom or Common pattern

Step 1 – Add an UploadFile method to BucketManager.cs

  1. Edit file called BucketManager.cs.
  2. Enter this new method:
            public static async Task UploadFile(TransferUtility transferUtility, string bucketName, string file)
            {
                await Task.Run(() => transferUtility.Upload(file, bucketName));
            }
    

    Notice 1: This method has different parameters. We are going to have to fix Program.cs later. Up until now, all of our methods had the same parameters.

  3. Notice 2: The content of this method is an action we would like to run asynchronously, but it is not asynchronous. Task.Run is a static method that runs any method you call inside it asynchronously.

Step 2 – Update the Action Argument

We now need to make this method a valid action for the Action Argument.

    1. Edit the ArgsHandler.cs file to define an Action argument.
                          ...
                          AllowedValues = new ObservableCollection<string>
                          {
                              "CreateBucket",
                              "DeleteBucket",
                              "ListFiles",
                              "UploadFile",
                          },
                          ...
      

Step 3 – Add a File Argument

If we are going to upload a file, we should know which file it is.

  1.                 new Argument
                    {
                        Name = "File",
                        ShortName = "f",
                        Description = "The file.",
                        Example = "{name}=c:\\some\file.txt",
                        CustomValidation = (value) =>
                        {
                            return File.Exists(value);
                        },
                        Action = (value) =>
                        {
                            Console.WriteLine(value);
                        }
                    }
    

    Notice: One of the cool features of SimpleArgs is the ability to declare custom validation. We don’t have to check elsewhere in our code if the file exists. We can use that to validate whether the File parameter is valid or not.

Step 4 – Fix the parameter mismatch problem

To be nice and S.O.L.I.D., our program now needs to determine the method’s dependencies and inject them into the method. It needs to do this dynamically at runtime.

Well, with only one exception, it is most easy to use the Custom or Common pattern. The Custom or Common pattern simply means checking for a customization and if no customization exists, use the common implementation.

To implement this, we could just use a simple IF condition. But just to demonstrate how a Dictionary can be used for the Custom or Common pattern, I will use it.

    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            new ArgsManager<ArgsHandler>().Start(args);
        }

        static Dictionary<string, object[]> CustomParameters = new Dictionary<string, object[]>();

        internal static void OnArgumentsHandled()
        {
            var action = Args.Value("Action");
            var bucketName = Args.Value("Bucket");
            var file = Args.Value("File");

            var flags = BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Public | BindingFlags.Static | BindingFlags.FlattenHierarchy;
            MethodInfo mi = typeof(BucketManager).GetMethod(action, flags);

            var region = RegionEndpoint.GetBySystemName(ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["AWSRegion"]);
            var s3client = new AmazonS3Client(region);
            var transferUtility = new TransferUtility(region);

            // Use the Custom or Common pattern
            CustomParameters.Add("UploadFile", new object[] { transferUtility, bucketName, file });
            object[] parameters;
            if (!CustomParameters.TryGetValue(action, out parameters))
                parameters = new object[] { s3client, bucketName };

            var task = mi.Invoke(null, parameters) as Task;
            task.Wait();
        }
    }

Notice in line 8 we create a dictionary. In line 24 we populate the dictionary with a customization. In Lines 26 and 27, we try to get a custom parameter array and if we don’t find it, we use the default one.

Homework: What if every method had different parameters? What would you do?

Go to: Part 5 – Creating a Directory in a Bucket

Return to: Managing Amazon AWS with C#


Amazon S3 Bucket Management with C#: Part 3 – Listing files in a Bucket

Before getting started

Skill Level: Beginner

Assumptions:

  1. You already gone through Part 1 – Creating a Bucket and Part 2 – Deleting a Bucket

Additional information: I sometimes cover small sub-topics in a post. Along with AWS, you will also be exposed to:

  • async, await, Task
  • Rhyous.SimpleArgs

Step 1 – Add a ListFiles method to BucketManager.cs

  1. Edit file called BucketManager.cs.
  2. Enter this new method:
            public static async Task ListFiles(AmazonS3Client client, string bucketName)
            {
                var listResponse = await client.ListObjectsV2Async(new ListObjectsV2Request { BucketName = bucketName });
                if (listResponse.S3Objects.Count > 0)
                {
                    Console.WriteLine($"Listing items in S3 bucket: {bucketName}");
                    listResponse.S3Objects.ForEach(o => Console.WriteLine(o.Key));
                }
            }
    

    Note: I noticed there was a ListObjectsAsync and a ListObjectsV2Async. I assumed the one with V2 is newer and should be used for new code. The documentation for ListObjectsV2Async confirmed this.

Step 2 – Update the Action Argument

We now need to make this method a valid action for the Action Argument.

  1. Edit the ArgsHandler.cs file to define an Action argument.
                        ...
                        AllowedValues = new ObservableCollection<string>
                        {
                            "CreateBucket",
                            "DeleteBucket",
                            "ListFiles"
                        },
                        ...
    

Notice: We didn’t have a step 3. We wrote some S.O.L.I.D. code in Part 1 and Part 2, which made it really easy for us to implement this method.

Homework: I also read in the documentation that only 1000 files will be listed when a call to ListObjectsV2Async is made. What if you have more than 1000 files, how would you list them all?

Go to: Part 4 – Uploading a file to a Bucket

Return to: Managing Amazon AWS with C#


Amazon S3 Bucket Management with C#: Part 2 – Deleting a Bucket

Before getting started

Skill Level: Beginner

Assumptions:

  1. You already gone through Part 1 – Creating a Bucket where you have already:
    1. Created a new Console Application Project
    2. Added NuGet Package
    3. Created a BucketManager.cs
    4. Coded Program.cs.
    5. Added command line arguments

Additional information: I sometimes cover small sub-topics in a post. Along with AWS, you will also be exposed to:

  • async, await, Task
  • Reflection
  • Rhyous.SimpleArgs
  • Single Responsibility Principal (S of S.O.L.I.D.) or Don’t Repeat Yourself (DRY)
  • Dependency Injection – Method Injection (D of S.O.L.I.D.)

Step 1 – Add a DeleteBucket method to BucketManager.cs

  1. Edit file called BucketManager.cs.
  2. Enter this new method:
            public static async Task DeleteBucket(string bucketName)
            {
                var region = RegionEndpoint.GetBySystemName(ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["AWSRegion"]);
                var client = new AmazonS3Client(region);
                await AmazonS3Util.DeleteS3BucketWithObjectsAsync(client, bucketName);
                Console.WriteLine($"Deleted S3 bucket: {bucketName}");
            }
    

    Notice that there is more involved with deleting a bucket than creating a bucket. A bucket may not be empty. It could have files in it already. Because of this we call a helper method, DeleteS3BucketWithObjectsAsync, that deletes a bucket even if it has objects, i.e. files, in it.

Step 2 – Configure an Argument for the Action to call

Since BucketManager can now can both Create and Delete a bucket, we need an argument to specify what action we would like to call.

  1. Edit the ArgsHandler.cs file to define an Action argument.
    SimpleArgs allows for arguments to be declarative and provides most the features you would want in command line arguments without having to write those features for every new application.

                    new Argument
                    {
                        Name = "Action",
                        ShortName = "a",
                        Description = "The action to run.",
                        Example = "{name}=default",
                        DefaultValue = "Default",
                        AllowedValues = new ObservableCollection&lt;string&gt;
                        {
                            "CreateBucket",
                            "DeleteBucket"
                        },
                        IsRequired = true,
                        Action = (value) =&gt;
                        {
                            Console.WriteLine(value);
                        }
                    }
    

    Notice: We don’t have to validate that the correct method was passed in as a variable because SimpleArgs will do this for us by simply declaring them as AllowedValues. When AllowedValues is declared, only those values are allowed. Any other value will result in the application stopping and outputting the list of valid arguments.

Step 3 – Edit the Program.cs

We are now going to use reflection to call the appropriate function based on our action parameter.

    1. Edit the OnArgumentsHandled method of Program.cs.
              internal static void OnArgumentsHandled()
              {
                  var action = Args.Value("Action");
                  var bucketName = Args.Value("Bucket");
                  var flags = BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Public | BindingFlags.Static | BindingFlags.FlattenHierarchy;
                  MethodInfo mi = typeof(BucketManager).GetMethod(action, flags);
      
                  var task = mi.Invoke(null, new[] { bucketName }) as Task;
                  task.Wait();
              }
      

Step 4 – Make the code S.O.L.I.D.

We have broken the Single Responsibility Principal (S in S.O.L.I.D.) or Don’t Repeat Yourself (DRY) rule. Let’s notice it and fix it.

    1. Notice in BucketManager.cs that both methods are breaking two rules:
      • Don’t Repeat Yourself or DRY: We have two methods repeating the same two lines of code.
                    var region = RegionEndpoint.GetBySystemName(ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["AWSRegion"]);
                    var client = new AmazonS3Client(region);											
        
      • Single Responsibility Principal: Each method has one repsponsibility. CreateBucket should only create a bucket on the Amazon S3 server. DeletBucket should only delete a bucket. Currently, both methods are having to instantiate a client and figure out the region. That isn’t the responsibility of these methods.
    2. Let’s solve this with Method Injection. Method Injection is a form of Dependency Injection (D in S.O.L.I.D.). We will pass the client into the method.
      Note: I am using method injection because all the methods are static, so Constructor Injection is not an option. Property Injection is an option. A Lazy-injectable Property would also be a very good option here.
    3. Alter the methods to take in an AmazonS3Client object.
      using Amazon.S3;
      using Amazon.S3.Util;
      using System;
      using System.Threading.Tasks;
      
      namespace Rhyous.AmazonS3BucketManager
      {
          public class BucketManager
          {
              public static async Task CreateBucket(AmazonS3Client client, string bucketName)
              {
                  await client.PutBucketAsync(bucketName);
                  Console.WriteLine($"Created S3 bucket: {bucketName}");
              }
      
              public static async Task DeleteBucket(AmazonS3Client client, string bucketName)
              {
                  await AmazonS3Util.DeleteS3BucketWithObjectsAsync(client, bucketName);
                  Console.WriteLine($"Deleted S3 bucket: {bucketName}");
              }
          }
      }
      
    4. Update the Program.cs to instantiate the client and pass it into the methods.
              internal static void OnArgumentsHandled()
              {
                  var action = Args.Value("Action");
                  var bucketName = Args.Value("Bucket");
      
                  var flags = BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Public | BindingFlags.Static | BindingFlags.FlattenHierarchy;
                  MethodInfo mi = typeof(BucketManager).GetMethod(action, flags);
      
                  var region = RegionEndpoint.GetBySystemName(ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["AWSRegion"]);
                  var client = new AmazonS3Client(region);
      
                  var task = mi.Invoke(null, new object[] { client, bucketName }) as Task;
                  task.Wait();
              }
      

      Notice we now only create a client one time.

      Note: The OnArgumentsHandled in our Program.cs is now doing four things. As you can see above, it has each thing it does in a pair of lines, with each pair of lines separated by a double space. This is where we want to be careful to not overdo it when following design patterns. We only have eight lines of code. Program.cs is supposed to be a program. It is fine for now. Let’s not change it. Notice it. Consider changing it. This time we decided to leave it, but we can keep it in mind. If more lines are added, then that method probably should be changed.

Go to: Part 3 – Listing files in a Bucket

Return to: Managing Amazon AWS with C#


Amazon S3 Bucket Management with C#: Part 1 – Creating a Bucket

Before getting started

Skill Level: Beginner

Assumptions:

  1. You already have Visual Studio installed.
  2. You are familiar with creating projects in Visual Studio.
  3. We assume you have already gone to AWS and registered with them. If you haven’t done that already, stop and go there now. Amazon has a free tier and you can create an account here: https://aws.amazon.com/free

Additional Information: I sometimes cover small sub-topics in a post. Along with AWS, you will also be exposed to:

  • .NET Core 2.0 – If you use .NET Framework, the steps will be slightly different, but as this is a beginner level tutorial, it should be simple.
  • async, await, Task
  • Rhyous.SimpleArgs

Step 1 – Create the project

  1. Open Visual Studio.
  2. Go to File | New Project.
  3. Choose Console Application.
    Give it any name you want.
    I am going to call my project Rhyous.AmazonS3BucketManager.

Step 2 – Add NuGet Packages

  1. Right-click on your project and choose Management NuGet Packages.
  2. Search for AWSSDK.S3.
  3. Install the NuGet package and all the dependencies.
  4. Search for System.Configuration.ConfigurationManager.
  5. Install it.

Step 3 – Create a BucketManager.cs file

  1. Create a new file called BucketManager.cs.
  2. Enter this code:
    using Amazon;
    using Amazon.S3;
    using System;
    using System.Configuration;
    using System.Threading.Tasks;
    
    namespace Rhyous.AmazonS3BucketManager
    {
        public class BucketManager
        {
            public static async Task CreateBucket(string bucketName)
            {
                var region = RegionEndpoint.GetBySystemName(ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["AWSRegion"]);
                var client = new AmazonS3Client(region);
                await client.PutBucketAsync(bucketName);
                Console.WriteLine($"Created S3 bucket: {bucketName}");
            }
        }
    }
    

Step 4 – Edit the Program.cs

  1. Add the following to Program.cs.
            static void Main()
            {
                var task = BucketManager.CreateBucket("my.new.bucket");
                task.Wait();
            }
    

Step 5 – Create/Edit the App.config

  1. If there isn’t an app.config in your project, create one.
  2. Right-click on your project and choose Add | New Item.
  3. Search for Application Configuration File.
    Make sure it is name app.config.
  4. Add an appSetting for your AWS profile name.
    Add an additional appSetting for your chosen AWS region.

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
    <configuration>
      <appSettings>
        <add key="AWSProfileName" value="yourprofilename"/>
        <add key="AWSRegion" value="us-west-2" />
      </appSettings>
    </configuration>
    

Step 6 – Configure an Argument for the bucket name.

We are going to be adding to this program in subsequent posts. For this reason, we are going to use Rhyous.SimpleArgs library for our command line arguments as it provides ready-made command line argument features.

  1. Install another NuGet Package.
  2. Right-click on your project and choose Management NuGet Packages.
  3. Search for Rhyous.SimpleArgs
  4. Install it.
  5. Create an ArgsHandler.cs file to define the arguments:
    Note: If you used a .NET core project you have to create this file. If you created a .NET Framework file, this file should have been created for you and you have but to edit it.

    using Rhyous.SimpleArgs;
    using System;
    using System.Collections.Generic;
    using System.Text.RegularExpressions;
    
    namespace Rhyous.AmazonS3BucketManager
    {
        public class ArgsHandler : ArgsHandlerBase
        {
            public override void InitializeArguments(IArgsManager argsManager)
            {
                Arguments.AddRange(new List<Argument>
                {
                    new Argument
                    {
                        Name = "Bucket",
                        ShortName = "b",
                        Description = "The bucket name to create. No uppercase or underscores allowed.",
                        Example = "{name}=my.first.bucket",
                        DefaultValue = "my.first.bucket",
                        IsRequired = true,
                        CustomValidation = (value) => 
                        {
                            return Regex.IsMatch(value, "^[a-z0-9.]+$");
                        },
                        Action = (value) =>
                        {
                            Console.WriteLine(value);
                        }
                    }
                });
            }
    
            public override void HandleArgs(IReadArgs inArgsHandler)
            {
                base.HandleArgs(inArgsHandler);
                Program.OnArgumentsHandled();
            }
        }
    }
    
  6. Update Program.cs as follows:
    using Rhyous.SimpleArgs;
    using System;
    
    namespace Rhyous.AmazonS3BucketManager
    {
        class Program
        {
            static void Main(string[] args)
            {
                new ArgsManager<ArgsHandler>().Start(args);
            }
    
            internal static void OnArgumentsHandled()
            {
                var bucketName = Args.Value("Bucket");
                var task = BucketManager.CreateBucket(bucketName);
                task.Wait();
            }
        }
    }
    

Now for fun, you can delete the app.config and change them to parameters.

Next:

  • Deleting a Bucket
  • Return to: Managing Amazon AWS with C#


    I just hit 4000 points on StackOverflow!

    I just hit 4000 points on StackOverflow!


    profile for Rhyous at Stack Overflow, Q&A for professional and enthusiast programmers


    Understanding async and await, Task.WaitAll, Task.Run, and parallelism

    Ok. You are probably new to async and await or maybe you aren’t new but you’ve never deep dived into it. You may not understand some simple truths:

    1. aync/await does NOT give you parallelism for free.
    2. Tasks are not necessary parallel. They can be if you code them to be.
    3. The recommendation “You should always use await” is not really true when you want parallelism, but is still sort of true.
    4. Task.WhenAll is both parallel and async.
    5. Task.WaitAll only parallel.

    Here is a sample project that will help you learn.

    There is more to learn in the comments.
    There is more to learn by running this.

    Note: I used Visual Studio 2017 and compiled with .Net 7.1, which required that I go to the project properties | Build | Advanced | Language Version and set the language to C# 7.1 or C# latest minor version.

    using System;
    using System.Diagnostics;
    using System.Threading.Tasks;
    
    namespace MultipleAwaitsExample
    {
        class Program
        {
            static async Task Main(string[] args)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("Running with await");
                await RunTasksAwait();
                Console.WriteLine("Running with Task.WaitAll()");
                await RunTasksWaitAll();
                Console.WriteLine("Running with Task.WhenAll()");
                await RunTasksWhenAll();
                Console.WriteLine("Running with Task.Run()");
                await RunTasksWithTaskRun();
                Console.WriteLine("Running with Parallel");
                RunTasksWithParallel();
            }
    
            /// <summary>
            /// Pros: It works
            /// Cons: The tasks are NOT run in parallel.
            ///       Code after the await is not run while the await is awaited
            ///       **If you want parallelism, this isn't even an option.**
            ///       Slowest. Because of no parallelism.
            /// </summary>
            public static async Task RunTasksAwait()
            {
                var group = "await";
                Stopwatch watcher = new Stopwatch();
                watcher.Start();
                await MyTaskAsync(1, 500, group);
                await MyTaskAsync(2, 300, group);
                await MyTaskAsync(3, 100, group);
                Console.WriteLine("Code immediately after tasks.");
                watcher.Stop();
                Console.WriteLine($"{group} runtime: {watcher.ElapsedMilliseconds}");
            }
    
            /// <summary>
            /// WaitAll behaves quite differently from WhenAll
            /// Pros: It works
            ///       The tasks run in parallel
            /// Cons: It isn't clear whether the code is parallel here, but it is.
            ///       It isn't clear whether the code  is async here, but it is NOT.
            ///       There is a Visual Studio usage warning. You can remove async to get rid of it because it isn't an Async method.
            ///       The return value is wrapped the Result property of the task
            ///       Breaks Aync end-to-end
            ///       Note: I can't foresee usecase where WaitAll would be preferred over WhenAll.
            /// </summary>
            public static async Task RunTasksWaitAll()
            {
                var group = "WaitAll";
                Stopwatch watcher = new Stopwatch();
                watcher.Start();
                var task1 = MyTaskAsync(1, 500, group);
                var task2 = MyTaskAsync(2, 300, group);
                var task3 = MyTaskAsync(3, 100, group);
                Console.WriteLine("Code immediately after tasks.");
                Task.WaitAll(task1, task2, task3);
                watcher.Stop();
                Console.WriteLine($"{group} runtime: {watcher.ElapsedMilliseconds}");
            }
    
            /// <summary>
            /// WhenAll gives you the best of all worlds. The code is both parallel and async.
            /// Pros: It works
            ///       The tasks run in parallel
            ///       Code after the tasks run while the task is running
            ///       Doesn't break end-to-end async
            /// Cons: It isn't clear you are doing parallelism here, but you are.
            ///       There is a Visual Studio usage warning
            ///       The return value is wrapped the Result property of the task
            /// </summary>
            public static async Task RunTasksWhenAll()
            {
                var group = "WaitAll";
                Stopwatch watcher = new Stopwatch();
                watcher.Start();
                var task1 = MyTaskAsync(1, 500, group);  // You can't use await if you want parallelism
                var task2 = MyTaskAsync(2, 300, group);
                var task3 = MyTaskAsync(3, 100, group);
                Console.WriteLine("Code immediately after tasks.");
                await Task.WhenAll(task1, task2, task3); // But now you are calling await, so you are sort of still awaiting
                watcher.Stop();
                Console.WriteLine($"{group} runtime: {watcher.ElapsedMilliseconds}");
            }
    
            /// <summary>
            /// Pros: It works
            ///       The tasks run in parrallel
            ///       Code can run immediately after the tasks but before the tasks complete
            ///       Allows for running non-async code asynchonously
            /// Cons: It isn't clear whether the code is doing parallelism here. It isn't.
            ///       The lambda syntax affects readability
            ///       Breaks Aync end-to-end
            /// </summary>
            public static async Task RunTasksWithTaskRun()
            {
                var group = "Task.Run()";
                Stopwatch watcher = new Stopwatch();
                watcher.Start();
                await Task.Run(() => MyTask(1, 500, group));
                await Task.Run(() => MyTask(2, 300, group));
                await Task.Run(() => MyTask(3, 100, group));
                Console.WriteLine("Code immediately after tasks.");
                watcher.Stop();
                Console.WriteLine($"{group} runtime: {watcher.ElapsedMilliseconds}");
            }
    
            /// <summary>
            /// Pros: It works
            ///       It is clear in the code you want to run these tasks in parallel.
            ///       Code can run immediately after the tasks but before the tasks complete
            ///       Fastest
            /// Cons: There is no async or await.
            ///       Breaks Aync end-to-end. You can workaround this by wrapping Parallel.Invoke in a Task.Run method. See commented code.
            /// </summary>
            public /* async */ static void RunTasksWithParallel()
            {
                var group = "Parallel";
                Stopwatch watcher = new Stopwatch();
                watcher.Start();
                //await Task.Run(() => 
                Parallel.Invoke(
                    () => MyTask(1, 500, group),
                    () => MyTask(2, 300, group),
                    () => MyTask(3, 100, group),
                    () => Console.WriteLine("Code immediately after tasks.")
                );
                //);
                
                watcher.Stop();
                Console.WriteLine($"{group} runtime: {watcher.ElapsedMilliseconds}");
            }
    
            public static async Task MyTaskAsync(int i, int milliseconds, string group)
            {
                await Task.Delay(milliseconds);
                Console.WriteLine($"{group}: {i}");
            }
    
            public static void MyTask(int i, int milliseconds, string group)
            {
                var task = Task.Delay(milliseconds);
                task.Wait();
                Console.WriteLine($"{group}: {i}");
            }
        }
    }
    

    And here is the same example but this time with some return values.

    using System;
    using System.Diagnostics;
    using System.Threading.Tasks;
    
    namespace MultipleAwaitsExample
    {
        class Program1
        {
            static async Task Main(string[] args)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("Running with await");
                await RunTasksAwait();
                Console.WriteLine("Running with Task.WaitAll()");
                await RunTasksWaitAll();
                Console.WriteLine("Running with Task.WhenAll()");
                await RunTasksWhenAll();
                Console.WriteLine("Running with Task.Run()");
                await RunTasksWithTaskRun();
                Console.WriteLine("Running with Parallel");
                RunTasksWithParallel();
            }
    
            /// <summary>
            /// Pros: It works
            /// Cons: The tasks are NOT run in parallel.
            ///       Code after the await is not run while the await is awaited
            ///       **If you want parallelism, this isn't even an option.**
            ///       Slowest. Because of no parallelism.
            /// </summary>
            public static async Task RunTasksAwait()
            {
                var group = "await";
                Stopwatch watcher = new Stopwatch();
                watcher.Start();
                // You just asign the return variables as normal.
                int result1 = await MyTaskAsync(1, 500, group);
                int result2 = await MyTaskAsync(2, 300, group);
                int result3 = await MyTaskAsync(3, 100, group);
                Console.WriteLine("Code immediately after tasks.");
                watcher.Stop();
                // You now have access to the return objects directly.
                Console.WriteLine($"{group} runtime: {watcher.ElapsedMilliseconds}");
            }
    
            /// <summary>
            /// WaitAll behaves quite differently from WhenAll
            /// Pros: It works
            ///       The tasks run in parallel
            /// Cons: It isn't clear whether the code is parallel here, but it is.
            ///       It isn't clear whether the code  is async here, but it is NOT.
            ///       There is a Visual Studio usage warning. You can remove async to get rid of it because it isn't an Async method.
            ///       The return value is wrapped the Result property of the task
            ///       Breaks Aync end-to-end
            ///       Note: I can't foresee usecase where WaitAll would be preferred over WhenAll.
            /// </summary>
            public static async Task RunTasksWaitAll()
            {
                var group = "WaitAll";
                Stopwatch watcher = new Stopwatch();
                watcher.Start();
                var task1 = MyTaskAsync(1, 500, group);
                var task2 = MyTaskAsync(2, 300, group);
                var task3 = MyTaskAsync(3, 100, group);
                Console.WriteLine("Code immediately after tasks.");
                Task.WaitAll(task1, task2, task3);
                watcher.Stop();
                // You now have access to the return object using the Result property.
                int result1 = task1.Result;
                int result2 = task2.Result;
                int result3 = task3.Result;
                Console.WriteLine($"{group} runtime: {watcher.ElapsedMilliseconds}");
            }
    
            /// <summary>
            /// WhenAll gives you the best of all worlds. The code is both parallel and async.
            /// Pros: It works
            ///       The tasks run in parallel
            ///       Code after the tasks run while the task is running
            ///       Doesn't break end-to-end async
            /// Cons: It isn't clear you are doing parallelism here, but you are.
            ///       There is a Visual Studio usage warning
            ///       The return value is wrapped the Result property of the task
            /// </summary>
            public static async Task RunTasksWhenAll()
            {
                var group = "WaitAll";
                Stopwatch watcher = new Stopwatch();
                watcher.Start();
                var task1 = MyTaskAsync(1, 500, group);  // You can't use await if you want parallelism
                var task2 = MyTaskAsync(2, 300, group);
                var task3 = MyTaskAsync(3, 100, group);
                Console.WriteLine("Code immediately after tasks.");
                await Task.WhenAll(task1, task2, task3); // But now you are calling await, so you are sort of still awaiting
                watcher.Stop();
                Console.WriteLine($"{group} runtime: {watcher.ElapsedMilliseconds}");
            }
    
            /// <summary>
            /// Pros: It works
            ///       The tasks run in parrallel
            ///       Code can run immediately after the tasks but before the tasks complete
            ///       Allows for running non-async code asynchonously
            /// Cons: It isn't clear whether the code is doing parallelism here. It isn't.
            ///       The lambda syntax affects readability
            ///       Breaks Aync end-to-end
            /// </summary>
            public static async Task RunTasksWithTaskRun()
            {
                var group = "Task.Run()";
                Stopwatch watcher = new Stopwatch();
                watcher.Start();
                int result1 = await Task.Run(() => MyTask(1, 500, group));
                int result2 = await Task.Run(() => MyTask(2, 300, group));
                int result3 = await Task.Run(() => MyTask(3, 100, group));
                Console.WriteLine("Code immediately after tasks.");
                watcher.Stop();
                // You now have access to the return objects directly.
                Console.WriteLine($"{group} runtime: {watcher.ElapsedMilliseconds}");
            }
    
            /// <summary>
            /// Pros: It works
            ///       It is clear in the code you want to run these tasks in parallel.
            ///       Code can run immediately after the tasks but before the tasks complete
            ///       Fastest
            /// Cons: There is no async or await.
            ///       Breaks Aync end-to-end. You can workaround this by wrapping Parallel.Invoke in a Task.Run method. See commented code.
            /// </summary>
            public /* async */ static void RunTasksWithParallel()
            {
                var group = "Parallel";
                Stopwatch watcher = new Stopwatch();
                watcher.Start();
                // You have to declare your return objects before hand.
                //await Task.Run(() => 
                int result1, result2, result3;
                Parallel.Invoke(
                    () => result1 = MyTask(1, 500, group),
                    () => result2 = MyTask(2, 300, group),
                    () => result3 = MyTask(3, 100, group),
                    () => Console.WriteLine("Code immediately after tasks.")
                );
                //);
                // You now have access to the return objects directly.
                watcher.Stop();
                Console.WriteLine($"{group} runtime: {watcher.ElapsedMilliseconds}");
            }
    
            public static async Task<int> MyTaskAsync(int i, int milliseconds, string group)
            {
                await Task.Delay(milliseconds);
                Console.WriteLine($"{group}: {i}");
                return i;
            }
    
            public static int MyTask(int i, int milliseconds, string group)
            {
                var task = Task.Delay(milliseconds);
                task.Wait();
                Console.WriteLine($"{group}: {i}");
                return i;
            }
        }
    }
    

    Excluding Integration and other tests when running Unit Tests locally in Visual Studio

    Often, a solution may have both Unit Tests and Integration Tests. Unit Tests should be highly specific, and should be testing one class object. Integration Test could be vastly more complex and could use Selenium, or require a real database server, etc. Even if a solution doesn’t have Integration Tests, it may have slow Unit Tests. For example, I have a test that takes about 2 minutes to run because it is testing that when creating 10 million random strings, the character distribution is pretty equal.

    I don’t want to either slow Unit Tests or Integration Tests to run every single time I build on my local dev box. I do have an automated build system and builds kick off on check-in. At that time, these slow tests will run every time. But locally, it is just an unnecessary delay.

    Usually I am writing in a specific project and that project has specific tests and I can easily choose to only run tests in my current project. But what if I am updating a library that many projects use. I want to know quickly if anything is broke, so I need to run most of the tests in the entire solution.

    Visual Studio allows for tests to be tagged with a TestCategoryAttribute.

    You can mark different tests with different names: [TestCategory(“Slow”)], [TestCategory(“Integration”)], [TestCategory(“Performance”)], [TestCategory(“Selenium”)]

    Example:

    [TestMethod]
    [TestCategory("Slow")]
    public void TestDistributionInTenMillionCharacters()
    {
        // some code here
    }
    

    All other tests are left without a test category. Now, if you want to run all tests that aren’t slow, you can do this in Visual Studio Test Explorer by grouping tests using the “Traits” selection option.

    Once you have marked all tests with an appropriate TestCategoryAttribute, you can sort by Trait. Now it is simple to click-to-highlight the No Traits group and click Run | Selected Tests.


    Avoiding Dependency Injection’s Constructor Injection Hell by Using the Custom or Default Pattern

    Dependency Injection makes the claim that a concrete implementation of an interface is going to change. The problem is that theory rarely meets reality. In reality, there usually exists one single concrete implementation of most interfaces. Usually there exists one Test implementation. Other than those two concrete interfaces, a second production implementation of an interface almost never exists. When there are multiple concrete implementations of an interface, it is usually in a plugin situation and is handled differently, using plugin loading technology. So we can exclude plugin scenarios, whether UI or other, and focus on day-to-day dependency injection.

    In some projects, 100% of the objects have a single production implementation and a single test implementation. Other projects, you may see 90%/10%, but again, rarely are their multiple.

    In other projects, you will find a second production concrete implementation, but it is replaces the previous implementation, not running alongside it.

    So why are we not coding to the common case?

    Construction Injection

    Constructor Injection assumes a few things:

    1. Your class should not even instantiate without something injected into the constructor.
    2. Your class should not work without something injected in.
    3. Your class should have zero dependencies, except of standard types and simple POCO model classes.

    It sounds great in theory, but in practice, it usually leads to constructor injection hell. If you are wondering what Constructor Injection hell is, have a look at this previous post: Constructor Injection Hell.

    Property Injection Issues

    Property Injection or Method injection are also assuming a few statements are true.

    1. Your class can be instantiated without something injected into the constructor.
    2. Your methods should throw exceptions if a required property has not yet been injected.
    3. Your class should have zero dependencies, except of standard types and simple POCO model classes.

    Method Injection Issues

    Method Injection or Method injection are also assuming a few statements are true.

    1. Your class can be instantiated without something injected into the constructor.
    2. Your methods should throw exceptions if a required property is not injected when the method is called.
    3. Your class should have zero dependencies, except of standard types and simple POCO model classes.

    Dependency Injection Problems

    There are problems caused with Dependency Injection.

    1. Dependency Injection Hell
    2. Your code doesn’t work without an injected dependency
    3. You cannot test your code without an injected dependency.

    Should You Stop Using Dependency Injection

    So now that you’ve been educated on the truth that theory and reality never mix, and most of Dependency Injection is a waste of time, let me tell you: Keep doing it because you still will benefit from Dependency Injection.

    Don’t stop doing it, but instead add to it a simple pattern. The Custom or Default pattern.

    Custom or Default Pattern

    This pattern is so simple that I cannot even find it mentioned in any list of software development patterns. It is so simple and obvious, that nobody talks about it. But let’s talk about it anyway.

    Make everything have a default value/implementation. If a custom implementation is supplied use it, otherwise use the default.

    It is a simple pattern where all the Dependency Injection rules are simplified into two:

    1. Your class should instantiate without something injected into the constructor.
    2. Your class and method should work without something injected in.
    3. Your class should have zero dependencies, except of standard types and simple POCO model classes or default implementations.

    Notice the rules change. And these changes make your life so much easier.

    What adding this pattern says is that it is OK to depend on a default implementation. Yes, please, support Dependency Injection, but don’t forget to provide a default implementation.

    Constructor Injection with the Custom or Default Pattern

    This pattern could be implemented with Constructor Injection.

    public class SomeObjectWithDependencies
    {
        internal IDoSomething _Doer;
        public SomeObjectWithDependencies(IDoSomething doer)
        {
            _Doer = doer ?? new DefaultDoer();
        }
    
        public void DoSomething()
        {
            _Doer.DoSomething();
        }
    }
    

    However, you didn’t solve Constructor Injection hell. You could solve that with a Service Locator. Here is the same pattern with a Service Locator. I’ll only do one Service Locator example, though it could be done a few ways.

    public class SomeObjectWithDependencies
    {
        internal IDoSomething _Doer;
        public SomeObjectWithDependencies(IDoSomething <span class="hiddenGrammarError" pre="">doer)
        {
            doer</span> = doer ?? ServiceLocator.Instance.DefaultDoer;
        }
    
        public void DoSomething()
        {
            _Doer.DoSomething();
        }
    }
    

    Many developers will immediately react and say that both example result in coupled code. SomeObjectWithDependencies becomes coupled to DefaultDoer or ServiceLocator.

    Well, in theory, this is coupling. Your code will never compile, the earth will stop moving, you will rue the day you made this coupling, and your children will be cursed for generations, blah, blah, blah. Again, theory and reality aren’t friends. The code always compiles. The coupling is very light. Remember, it is only coupled to a default. You have now implemented the Custom or Default pattern. With one line of code, you solved a serious problem: With regular Dependency Injection, your code doesn’t work without an injected dependency.

    Guess what, you had coupling anyway. Usually you had to spin up some third library, a controller or starter of some sort, that hosted your dependency injection container, and then you had to couple the two objects of code together and now you have an entire third library just to keep two classes from being friends.

    The above is still very loose coupling. It is only coupling a default. It still allows for a non-default concrete implementation to be injected.

    Property Injection with the Custom or Default Pattern (Preferred)

    This pattern could be implemented with Property Injection. However, this pattern suddenly becomes extremely awesome. It is no longer just a standard property. It becomes a Lazy Injectable Property.

    A Lazy Injectable Property becomes key to solving most of your Constructor Injection hell.
    Since it is very rare that a implementation other than the default is ever used, it is extremely rare that a Dependency Injection container is ever really needed to inject a dependency. You will find yourself doing Dependency Injection with a container.

    This item

    public class SomeObjectWithDependencies
    {
        public IDoSomething Doer
        {
            get { return _Doer ?? (_Doer = new IDoSomething()); }
            set { _Doer = value; }
        } private IDoSomething _Doer;
    
        public void DoSomething()
        {
            _Doer.DoSomething();
        }
    }
    

    Or if you have a lot of such dependencies, you can move them into a DefaultServiceLocator .

    public class DefaultServiceLocator() : 
    {
            public IDoSomething Doer
            {
                get { return _Doer ?? (_Doer = new ConcreteDoSomething()); }
                set { _Doer = value; }
            } private IDoSomething _Doer;
    
            // more lazy injectable properties here
    }
    
    public class SomeObjectWithDependencies(IDoSomething doer)
    {
        public IDefaultServiceLocator ServiceLocator
        {
            get { return _ServiceLocator ?? (_ServiceLocator = new DefaultServiceLocator()); }
            set { _ServiceLocator = value; }
        } private IDoSomething _ServiceLocator;
    
        public void DoSomething()
        {
            ServiceLocator.DefaultDoer.DoSomething();
        }
    }