Posts tagged ‘c#’

Handling a custom name space (xmlns) in an XML with Xml Serialization

I have an xml that has a name space. This gave me to problems I had to resolve.

  1. How do I deserialize this xml with that name space value?
  2. How do I serialize the object to only have this one name space?

Deserializing an Xml with a Name Space

Below is an Xml file. Notice that the PrimaryNode has a name space that isn’t the default.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<PrimaryNode xmlns="http://some/random/namespace/example>
  <SecondaryNode>
    <TertiaryNode />
    <TertiaryNode />
  </SecondaryNode>
</PrimaryNode>

I had an object created as follows.

using System;
using System.Xml.Serialization;
using System.Collections.ObjectModel;

namespace XmlNameSpaceTest.Model
{
    [Serializable()]
    public class PrimaryNode
    {
        private ObservableCollection<SecondaryNode> _Children;

        public PrimaryNode() { }

        [XmlElement("SecondaryNode")]
        public ObservableCollection<SecondaryNode> Children
        {
            get
            {
                if (_Children == null)
                    _Children = new ObservableCollection<SecondaryNode>();
                return _Children;
            }
        }
    }
}

I used this static class for the serialization

using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Xml.Serialization;

namespace XmlNameSpaceTest.Model
{
    public class Serializer
    {
        #region Functions
        public static void SerializeToXML<T>(T t, String inFilename)
        {
            XmlSerializer serializer = new XmlSerializer(t.GetType());
            TextWriter textWriter = new StreamWriter(inFilename);
            serializer.Serialize(textWriter, t);
            textWriter.Close();
        }

        public static T DeserializeFromXML<T>(String inFilename)
        {
            XmlSerializer deserializer = new XmlSerializer(typeof(T));
            TextReader textReader = new StreamReader(inFilename);
            T retVal = (T)deserializer.Deserialize(textReader);
            textReader.Close();
            return retVal;
        }
        #endregion
    }
}

But it failed to deserialize because of the name space. It gave me this exception (which I trimmed to only show the important parts as it was very long).

System.InvalidOperationException was unhandled
  Message=There is an error in XML document (2, 2).
  Source=System.Xml
  StackTrace:
       <-- snipped -->
  InnerException: System.InvalidOperationException
       Message=<PrimaryNode xmlns='http://some/random/namespace/example'> was not expected.
       Source=bgwwvhdx
       StackTrace:
            at Microsoft.Xml.Serialization.GeneratedAssembly.XmlSerializationReaderPrimaryNode.Read7_PrimaryNode()

The solution was simple. I had to add the XmlRoot tag above the class.

    [Serializable()]
    [XmlRoot(Namespace="http://some/random/namespace/example")]
    public class PrimaryNode
    {
        ... snipped...
    }

This solved problem 1. The Xml now deserialized just fine.

Serializing an Xml so it only contains a single Name Space

When I serialized the object, there were two default name spaces, but neither were the custom name space that the Xml needed.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<PrimaryNode xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">
  <SecondaryNode>
    <TertiaryNode />
    <TertiaryNode />
  </SecondaryNode>
</PrimaryNode>

Here is what I had to do.

1. Add a XmlSerializerNamespaces property with only the one name space added.

    [Serializable()]
    [XmlRoot(Namespace="http://some/random/namespace/example")]
    public class PrimaryNode
    {
        ... snipped...

        private XmlSerializerNamespaces _Namespaces;

        public XmlSerializerNamespaces NameSpaces
        {
            get
            {
                if (_Namespaces == null)
                {
                    _Namespaces = new XmlSerializerNamespaces();
                    _Namespaces.Add("", "http://schemas.microsoft.com/wix/2006/wi");
                }
                return _Namespaces;
            }
        }
    }

2. Then I had to change my Serializer class. I needed to overload the Serialize function by adding a version of it that accepts the XmlSerializerNamespaces object as the third parameter.

        public static void SerializeToXML<T>(T t, String inFilename, XmlSerializerNamespaces namespaces)
        {
            XmlSerializer serializer = new XmlSerializer(t.GetType());
            TextWriter textWriter = new StreamWriter(inFilename);
            serializer.Serialize(textWriter, t, namespaces);
            textWriter.Close();
        }

3. Then, you’ve probably realized already, when serializing the object to Xml, we use this new function and pass it the PrimaryNode.NameSpaces as the third parameter.

This solved the second problem.

I hope this post helps you.

A simple example of starting and stopping a service in windows using C++

Hey all,

Here is a simple example of starting and stopping a service in C++. Just pass the service name as a parameter and the service will switch states. If stopped, it will start. If started, it will stop.

// StartStopService.cpp : Defines the entry point for the console application.
//

#include “stdafx.h”
#include
#include

int _tmain(int argc, _TCHAR* argv[])
{
SC_HANDLE serviceDbHandle = OpenSCManager(NULL,NULL,SC_MANAGER_ALL_ACCESS);
SC_HANDLE serviceHandle = OpenService(serviceDbHandle, argv[1], SC_MANAGER_ALL_ACCESS);

SERVICE_STATUS_PROCESS status;
DWORD bytesNeeded;
QueryServiceStatusEx(serviceHandle, SC_STATUS_PROCESS_INFO,(LPBYTE) &status,sizeof(SERVICE_STATUS_PROCESS), &bytesNeeded);

if (status.dwCurrentState == SERVICE_RUNNING)
{// Stop it
BOOL b = ControlService(serviceHandle, SERVICE_CONTROL_STOP, (LPSERVICE_STATUS) &status);
if (b)
{
std::cout << "Service stopped." << std::endl; } else { std::cout << "Service failed to stop." << std::endl; } } else {// Start it BOOL b = StartService(serviceHandle, NULL, NULL); if (b) { std::cout << "Service started." << std::endl; } else { std::cout << "Service failed to start." << std::endl; } }CloseServiceHandle(serviceHandle); CloseServiceHandle(serviceDbHandle);return 0; } [/sourcecode]

A simple example of creating or deleting a windows share using C++

Hey all,

Here is a simple example of creating or deleting a windows share in C++.

// CreateShare.cpp : Defines the entry point for the console application.
//

#include “stdafx.h”
#include
#include
#include “lm.h”

int _tmain(int argc, _TCHAR* argv[])
{
// Create share
if (0 == _tcscmp(argv[1], _T(“create”)))
{
SHARE_INFO_2 si =
{
L”ShareName”,
STYPE_DISKTREE,
L”Any nice comment or remark”,
ACCESS_READ,
DWORD(-1),
0,
L”C:\\Users\\jbarneck\\Desktop\\Share”,
L””
};

DWORD parameterError = 0;
DWORD status = NetShareAdd(NULL, 2, (BYTE *) &si, &parameterError);
if (status != ERROR_SUCCESS)
{
std::cout << "Error: " << status << std::endl; if (status == ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED) // 5L in WinError.h { std::cout << "Access denied." << std::endl; } if (status == NERR_ServerNotStarted) // 2114 in LMErr.h { std::cout << "The Server service is stopped." << std::endl; } if (status == NERR_DuplicateShare) // 2118 in LMErr.h { std::cout << "The share already exists." << std::endl; } } // End program return 0; }// Delete share if (0 == _tcscmp(argv[1], _T("delete"))) { DWORD status = NetShareDel(NULL, L"ShareName", 0); if (status != ERROR_SUCCESS) { std::cout << "Could not delete share: " << status << std::endl; } // End program return 0; }} [/sourcecode]References: NetShareAdd - http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb525384%28VS.85%29.aspx NetShareDel - http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb525386%28v=VS.85%29.aspx

How to limit or prevent characters in a TextBox in C#? Or How to create a NumberTextBox or DigitBox object?

Let say you want to have a TextBox in which you only want to allow integers (0-9) or maybe you only want to allow strings, A-Za-z.

Well, lets play around with this for a second and see what we can do.

To get started do this:

  1. Create a new WPF Application project.
  2. In the designer, add a TextBox from the Toolbox.
  3. In the properties field for the TextBox click the icon that look like a lightening bolt to bring up events.
  4. Find the KeyDown event and double-click on it.

Ok, so you should now have the following function:

        private void textBox1_KeyDown(object sender, KeyEventArgs e)
        {
        }

The key that was pressed is accessible from the KeyEventArgs variable, e. Specifically e.Key.

Key just happens to be an enum, which means they can basically be treated as integers.

The key press can be ignored by telling setting e.Handled=true. This way it is already marked as handled and will not be added to the TextBox.

Allow only number keys 0-9 in a TextBox

Here is a simple function to allow only natural numbers or number keys 0-9 in a TextBox. Be aware that the keys may be different in other languages.

        private void textBox1_KeyDown(object sender, KeyEventArgs e)
        {
            if (e.Key < Key.D0 || e.Key > Key.D9)
            {
                e.Handled = true;
            }
        }

Wow, that was pretty simple, right?  WRONG! It is not that easy.

You realize that there are two sets of numbers on a keyboard right? You have numbers in row above your QWERTY keys and you likely have a Number pad on the right of your keyboard as well.  That is not all either.

What else did we forget, you might ask?  Well, of the seven requirements we need to handle, we only handled one.  For an application to be considered release quality or enterprise ready or stable, all seven of these should be handled.

  1. Numbers 1234567890 above QWERTY keys.
  2. Numpad numbers.
  3. You may want to allow pressing of the Delete, Backspace, and Tab keys.
  4. What about pasting?
  5. What about drag and drop?
  6. What about someone else calling your code and changing the text?
  7. Mnemonics should work.

Requirements

Here are the six requirements in clear statements.

  1. Allow pressing Numbers 1234567890 above QWERTY keys.
  2. Allow pressing Numpad numbers.
  3. Allow pressing of the Delete, Backspace, and Tab keys.
  4. Allow pasting so that only numbers in a string are added: A1B2C3 becomes 123.
  5. Allow drag and drop so that only numbers in a string are added: A1B2C3 becomes 123.
  6. Allow change in code at runtime so that only numbers in a string are added: A1B2C3 becomes 123.
  7. When another control has a mnemonic, such as Alt + S, pressing Alt + S, should property change the focus and place the cursor in the Alt + S control.

Remembering lists like this is something that comes with experience.  If you thought of these on your own, good work.  If you didn’t think of them on your own, don’t worry, experience comes with time.

So lets enhance this to handle each of these.

Handling both Number keys and Numpad keys

        private void textBox1_KeyDown(object sender, KeyEventArgs e)
        {
                e.Handled = !IsNumberKey(e.Key);
        }

        private bool IsNumberKey(Key inKey)
        {
            if (inKey < Key.D0 || inKey > Key.D9)
            {
                if (inKey < Key.NumPad0 || inKey > Key.NumPad9)
                {
                    return false;
                }
            }
            return true;
        }

All right, we now have two of the six requirements down.

Handling Delete, Backspace, and Tab, and Mnemonics

You can probably already guess how easy it will be to do something similar to handle these two keys.

        protected void OnKeyDown(object sender, KeyEventArgs e)
        {
            e.Handled = !IsNumberKey(e.Key) && !IsActionKey(e.Key);
        }

        private bool IsNumberKey(Key inKey)
        {
            if (inKey < Key.D0 || inKey > Key.D9)
            {
                if (inKey < Key.NumPad0 || inKey > Key.NumPad9)
                {
                    return false;
                }
            }
            return true;
        }

        private bool IsActionKey(Key inKey)
        {
            return inKey == Key.Delete || inKey == Key.Back || inKey == Key.Tab || inKey == Key.Return || Keyboard.Modifiers.HasFlag(ModifierKeys.Alt);
        }

Ok, now we have four of six requirements handled.

Handling Paste (Ctrl + V) and Drag and Drop

Yes, I can handle both at the same time with a new event TextChanged.

This is setup so that if someone pastes both letters and number, only the numbers are pasted: A1B2C3 becomes 123.

This event is not configured so we have to set it up.

  1. In the designer, click the TextBox.
  2. In the properties field for the TextBox click the icon that look like a lightening bolt to bring up events.
  3. Find the TextChanged event and double-click on it.

You should now have this stub code for the event function.


        private void textBox1_TextChanged(object sender, TextChangedEventArgs e)
        {
        }

Here is some easy code to make sure each character is actually a digit.

        protected void OnTextChanged(object sender, TextChangedEventArgs e)
        {
            base.Text = LeaveOnlyNumbers(Text);
        }

        private string LeaveOnlyNumbers(String inString)
        {
            String tmp = inString;
            foreach (char c in inString.ToCharArray())
            {
                if (!IsDigit(c))
                {
                    tmp = tmp.Replace(c.ToString(), "");
                }
            }
            return tmp;
        }

        public bool IsDigit(char c)
        {
            return (c >= '0' && c <= '9');
        }

Guess what else? This last function actual handles the first five requirements all by itself. But it is less efficient so we will leave the previous requirements as they are.

Handling Direct Code Change

Ok, so some somehow your TextBox is passed inside code during runtime a string that contains more than just numbers.  How are you going to handle it.

This is setup so that if someone pastes both letters and number, only the numbers are pasted: A1B2C3 becomes 123.  Well, we need to run the same function as for Drag and Drop, so to not duplicate code, it is time to create a class or object.

Creating a NumberTextBox object

Now we need to make our code reusable. Lets create a class called NumberTextBox and it can do everything automagically.

NumberTextBox

using System;
using System.Windows.Controls;
using System.Windows.Input;

namespace System.Windows.Controls
{
    public class DigitBox : TextBox
    {
        #region Constructors
        /// <summary> 
        /// The default constructor
        /// </summary>
        public DigitBox()
        {
            TextChanged += new TextChangedEventHandler(OnTextChanged);
            KeyDown += new KeyEventHandler(OnKeyDown);
        }
        #endregion

        #region Properties
        new public String Text
        {
            get { return base.Text; }
            set
            {
                base.Text = LeaveOnlyNumbers(value);
            }
        }

        #endregion

        #region Functions
        private bool IsNumberKey(Key inKey)
        {
            if (inKey < Key.D0 || inKey > Key.D9)
            {
                if (inKey < Key.NumPad0 || inKey > Key.NumPad9)
                {
                    return false;
                }
            }
            return true;
        }

        private bool IsActionKey(Key inKey)
        {
            return inKey == Key.Delete || inKey == Key.Back || inKey == Key.Tab || inKey == Key.Return || Keyboard.Modifiers.HasFlag(ModifierKeys.Alt);
        }

        private string LeaveOnlyNumbers(String inString)
        {
            String tmp = inString;
            foreach (char c in inString.ToCharArray())
            {
                if (!IsDigit(c))
                {
                    tmp = tmp.Replace(c.ToString(), "");
                }
            }
            return tmp;
        }

        public bool IsDigit(char c)
        {
            return (c >= '0' && c <= '9');
        }
        #endregion

        #region Event Functions
        protected void OnKeyDown(object sender, KeyEventArgs e)
        {
            e.Handled = !IsNumberKey(e.Key) && !IsActionKey(e.Key);
        }

        protected void OnTextChanged(object sender, TextChangedEventArgs e)
        {
            base.Text = LeaveOnlyNumbers(Text);
        }
        #endregion
    }
}

Now I can delete the events and functions from the Window1.xaml.cs file. I don’t have to add any code to the Window1.xaml.cs. Instead I need to reference my local namespace in the Window1.xaml and then change the TextBox to a local:NumberTextBox. Here is the XAML.

<Window x:Class="TextBoxIntsOnly.Window1"
    xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
    xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
    xmlns:local="clr-namespace:TextBoxIntsOnly"
    Title="Window1" Height="300" Width="300">
    <Grid>
        <local:DigitBox Margin="87,27,71,0" VerticalAlignment="Top" x:Name="textBox1" />
        <Label Height="28" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="9,25,0,0" Name="label1" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="72">Integers:</Label>
        <TextBox Height="23" Margin="87,56,71,0" Name="textBox2" VerticalAlignment="Top" />
        <Label Height="28" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="9,54,0,0" Name="label2" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="72">Alphabet:</Label>
    </Grid>
</Window>

And now all seven requirements are met.

Common Regular Expression Patterns for C#

The following are code snippets for common regular expressions in C#.

If you have a regular expression that you think is common or a correction/improvement to one of mine, please submit it.

IP address pattern or expression

The expression:

^[0-9]{1,3}\.){3}[0-9]{1,3}$

In CSharp code:

String theIpAddressPattern = @"^[0-9]{1,3}\.){3}[0-9]{1,3}$";

Domain name pattern or expression

The expression:

^[\-\w]+\.)+[a-zA-Z]{2,4}$

In CSharp code:

String theDoainNamePattern = @"^[\-\w]+\.)+[a-zA-Z]{2,4}$";

Email address pattern or expression

The expression:

^[\w!#$%&'*+\-/=?\^_`{|}~]+(\.[\w!#$%&'*+\-/=?\^_`{|}~]+)*@((([\-\w]+\.)+[a-zA-Z]{2,4}$)|(([0-9]{1,3}\.){3}[0-9]{1,3}))

In CSharp code:

String theEmailPattern = @"^[\w!#$%&'*+\-/=?\^_`{|}~]+(\.[\w!#$%&'*+\-/=?\^_`{|}~]+)*"
                                   + "@"
                                   + @"((([\-\w]+\.)+[a-zA-Z]{2,4})|(([0-9]{1,3}\.){3}[0-9]{1,3}))$";

a

The URL Pattern

The expression:

((^http(s)*://(([\-\w]+\.)+[a-zA-Z]{2,4}.*)))$|(^ftp://([\w](:[\w]))*(([\-\w]+\.)+[a-zA-Z]{2,4}[/\w]*))$

In CSharp code:

            String theURLPattern = @"((^http(s)*://(([\-\w]+\.)+[a-zA-Z]{2,4}.*)))$"
                                 + @"|(^ftp://([\w](:[\w]))*(([\-\w]+\.)+[a-zA-Z]{2,4}[/\w]*))$";

Regular Expressions in C# (including a new comprehensive email pattern)

Of course C# supports regular expressions. I happen to have learned regular expressions in my dealings with FreeBSD, shell scripting, php, and other open source work. So naturally I would want to add this as a skill as I develop in C#.

What is a Regular Expression?

This is a method in code or script to describe the format or pattern of a string. For example, look at an email address:

someuser@somedomain.tld

It is important to understand that we are not trying to compare the email string against another string, we are trying to compare the string against a pattern.

To verify the email was in the correct format using String functions, it would take dozens of different functions running one after another.  However, with a regular expression, a proper email address can be verified in one single function.

So instead regular expression is a language, almost like a scripting language in itself, for defining character patterns.

Most characters represent themselves.  However, some characters don’t represent themselves without escaping them with a backslash because they represent something else.  Here is a table of those characters.

ExpressionMeaning
*Any number of the previous character or character group.
+One of more of the previous character or character group.
^Beginning of line or string.
$End of line or string.
?Pretty much any single character.
.Pretty much any character, zero characters, one character, or any number of characters
[ … ]This forms a character class expression
( … )This forms a group of items

You should look up more regular expression rules. I don’t explain them all here. This is just to give you an idea.

Example 1 – Parameter=Value

Here is a quick example of a regular expression that matches String=String. At first you might think this is easy and you can use this expression:

.*=.*

While that might work, it is very open. And it allows for zero characters before and after the equals, which should not be allowed.

This next pattern is at least correct but still very open.

.+=.+

What if the first value is limited to only alphanumeric characters?

[a-zA-z0-9]=.+

What if the second value has to be a valid windows file path or URL? And we will make sure we cover start to finish as well.

^[0-9a-zA-Z]+=[^<>|?*\”]+$

See how the more restrictions you put in place, the more complex the expression gets?

Example 2 – The email address

The pattern of an email is as follows: (Reference: wikipedia)

See updates here: C# – Email Regular Expression

  1. It will always have a single @ sign
  2. 1 to 64 characters before the @ sign called the local-part. Can contain characters a–z, A–Z, 0-9, ! # $ % & ‘ * + – / = ? ^ _ ` { | } ~, and . if it is not at the first or end of the local-part.
  3. Some characters after the @ sign that have a pattern as follows called the domain.
    1. It will always have a period “.”.
    2. One or more character before the period.
    3. Two to four characters after the period.

So a simple patterns of an email address should be something like these:

  1. This one just makes sure there are characters before and after the @
    .+@.+
  2. This one makes sure the are characters before and after the @ as well as a character before and after the . in the domain.
    .+@.*+\..+
  3. This one makes sure that there is only one @ symbol.
    [^@]+@[^@]+\.

This are all quick an easy examples and will not work in every instance but are usually accurate enough for casual programs.

But a comprehensive example is much more complex.

  1. I wrote one myself that is the shortest and gets the best results of any I have found:
    ^[\w!#$%&'*+\-/=?\^_`{|}~]+(\.[\w!#$%&'*+\-/=?\^_`{|}~]+)*@((([\-\w]+\.)+[a-zA-Z]{2,4})|(([0-9]{1,3}\.){3}[0-9]{1,3}))$
    
    
  2. Here is another complex one I found: [reference]
    ^(([^<>()[\]\\.,;:\s@\""]+(\.[^<>()[\]\\.,;:\s@\""]+)*)|(\"".+\""))@((\[[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\])|(([a-zA-Z\-0-9]+\.)+[a-zA-Z]{2,}))$
    

So let me explain the first one that I wrote as it passes my unit tests below:

The start
[\w!#$%&’*+\-/=?\^_`{|}~]+At least one valid local-part character not including a period.
(\.[\w!#$%&’*+\-/=?\^_`{|}~]+)*Any number (including zero) of a group that starts with a single period and has at least one valid local-part character after the period.
@The @ character
(Start group 1
(Start group 2
([\-\w]+\.)+At least one group of at least one valid word character or hyphen followed by a period
[\w]{2,4}Any two to four valid top level domain characters.
)End group 2
|an OR statement
(Start group 3
([0-9]{1,3}\.){3}[0-9]{1,3}A regular expression for an IP Address.
)End group 3
)End group 1

Code for both examples

Here is code for both examples. My email regular expression is enabled and the one I found on line is commented out. To see how they work differently, just comment out mine, and uncomment the one I found online.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Text.RegularExpressions;

namespace RegularExpressionsTest
{
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            // Example 1 - Parameter=value
            // Match any character before and after the =
            // String thePattern = @"^.+=.+$";

            // Match only Upper and Lowercase letters and numbers before
            // the = as a parameter name and after the equal match the
            // any character that is allowed in a file's full path
            //
            // ^[0-9a-zA-Z]+    This is any number characters upper or lower
            //                  case or 0 thru 9 at the string's beginning.
            //
            // =                Matches the = character exactly
            //
            // [^<>|?*\"]+$     This is any character except < > | ? * "
            //                  as they are not valid in a file path or URL

            String theNameEqualsValue = @"abcd=http://";

            String theParameterEqualsValuePattern = "^[0-9a-zA-Z]+=[^<>|?*\"]+$";
            bool isParameterEqualsValueMatch = Regex.IsMatch(theNameEqualsValue, theParameterEqualsValuePattern);
            Log(isParameterEqualsValueMatch);

            // Example 2 - Email address formats

            String theEmailPattern = @"^[\w!#$%&'*+\-/=?\^_`{|}~]+(\.[\w!#$%&'*+\-/=?\^_`{|}~]+)*"
                                   + "@"
                                   + @"((([\-\w]+\.)+[a-zA-Z]{2,4})|(([0-9]{1,3}\.){3}[0-9]{1,3}))$";

            // The string pattern from here doesn't not work in all instances.
            // http://www.cambiaresearch.com/c4/bf974b23-484b-41c3-b331-0bd8121d5177/Parsing-Email-Addresses-with-Regular-Expressions.aspx
            //String theEmailPattern = @"^(([^<>()[\]\\.,;:\s@\""]+(\.[^<>()[\]\\.,;:\s@\""]+)*)|(\"".+\""))"
            //                       + "@"
            //                       + @"((\[[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\])"
            //                       + "|"
            //                       + @"(([a-zA-Z\-0-9]+\.)+[a-zA-Z]{2,}))$";

            Console.WriteLine("Bad emails");
            foreach (String email in GetBadEmails())
            {
                Log(Regex.IsMatch(email, theEmailPattern));
            }

            Console.WriteLine("Good emails");
            foreach (String email in GetGoodEmails())
            {
                Log(Regex.IsMatch(email, theEmailPattern));
            }
        }

        private static void Log(bool inValue)
        {
            if (inValue)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("It matches the pattern");
            }
            else
            {
                Console.WriteLine("It doesn't match the pattern");
            }
        }

        private static List GetBadEmails()
        {
            List emails = new List();
            emails.Add("joe"); // should fail
            emails.Add("joe@home"); // should fail
            emails.Add("a@b.c"); // should fail because .c is only one character but must be 2-4 characters
            emails.Add("joe-bob[at]home.com"); // should fail because [at] is not valid
            emails.Add("joe@his.home.place"); // should fail because place is 5 characters but must be 2-4 characters
            emails.Add("joe.@bob.com"); // should fail because there is a dot at the end of the local-part
            emails.Add(".joe@bob.com"); // should fail because there is a dot at the beginning of the local-part
            emails.Add("john..doe@bob.com"); // should fail because there are two dots in the local-part
            emails.Add("john.doe@bob..com"); // should fail because there are two dots in the domain
            emails.Add("joe<>bob@bob.come"); // should fail because <> are not valid
            emails.Add("joe@his.home.com."); // should fail because it can't end with a period
            emails.Add("a@10.1.100.1a");  // Should fail because of the extra character
            return emails;
        }

        private static List GetGoodEmails()
        {
            List emails = new List();
            emails.Add("joe@home.org");
            emails.Add("joe@joebob.name");
            emails.Add("joe&bob@bob.com");
            emails.Add("~joe@bob.com");
            emails.Add("joe$@bob.com");
            emails.Add("joe+bob@bob.com");
            emails.Add("o'reilly@there.com");
            emails.Add("joe@home.com");
            emails.Add("joe.bob@home.com");
            emails.Add("joe@his.home.com");
            emails.Add("a@abc.org");
            emails.Add("a@192.168.0.1");
            emails.Add("a@10.1.100.1");
            return emails;
        }
    }
}

How to create a directory on an FTP server using C#?

Ok, so I already can upload a file to an FTP server: How to upload a file to an FTP server using C#?

However, now I need to create a directory first.

It follows some basic steps:

  1. Open a request using the full destination ftp path: Ftp://Ftp.Server.tld/ or Ftp://Ftp.Server.tld/Some/Path
  2. Configure the connection request
  3. Call GetResponse() method to actually attempt to create the directory
  4. Verify that it worked.

See the steps inside the source as comments:

using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Net;

namespace CreateDirectoryOnFtpServer
{
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            CreateDirectoryOnFTP("ftp://ftp.server.tld", /*user*/"User1", /*pw*/"Passwd!", "NewDirectory");

        }

        static void CreateDirectoryOnFTP(String inFTPServerAndPath, String inUsername, String inPassword, String inNewDirectory)
        {
            // Step 1 - Open a request using the full URI, ftp://ftp.server.tld/path/file.ext
            FtpWebRequest request = (FtpWebRequest)FtpWebRequest.Create(inFTPServerAndPath + "/" + inNewDirectory);

            // Step 2 - Configure the connection request
            request.Credentials = new NetworkCredential(inUsername, inPassword);
            request.UsePassive = true;
            request.UseBinary = true;
            request.KeepAlive = false;

            request.Method = WebRequestMethods.Ftp.MakeDirectory;

            // Step 3 - Call GetResponse() method to actually attempt to create the directory
            FtpWebResponse makeDirectoryResponse = (FtpWebResponse)request.GetResponse();
        }
    }
}

All right, now you have created a directory on the FTP server.


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How to create a custom class template for Xml Serializable classes?

Ok, so you don’t always want a default class template for every type of class.  I have to create a bunch of classes that implement Serializable and if the class template assumed this, that would be great.  However, I don’t want my default class template to assume this.

So here is what I did broken down into four simple steps.

  1. Open or create a c# project.
  2. Create a class file.
  3. Add the text and the variables to replaced.
  4. Export the item as a template.

Step 1 – Open or create a c# project.

Ok, so any project will do.  I used an existing project, but you can create a new one if you want.  Any C# project should allow this to happen.

Step 2 – Create a class file.

In one of my C# projects in Visual Studio, I created a new class called XmlClass.cs.

Step 3 – Add the text and the variables to replaced

I put the following text into my new class:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Xml.Serialization;

namespace $rootnamespace$
{
	[Serializable]
	public class $safeitemrootname$
	{
		#region Member Variables
		#endregion

		#region Constructors

		/*
		 * The default constructor
 		 */
		public $safeitemrootname$()
		{
		}

		#endregion

		#region Properties
		#endregion

		#region Functions
		#endregion

		#region Enums
		#endregion
	}
}

Step 4 – Export the item as a template

  1. In Visual Studio, chose File | Export Template.  This starts a wizard that is extremely easy to follow.Note: If you have unsaved files in your project, you will be prompted to save them.
  2. Chose Item template, select your project, and click Next.
  3. In the next screen there was a tree view of check boxes for all my objects.  I checked the box next to my XmlClass.cs.
  4. In the next screen, provide references.Note: I added only System and System.Xml.
  5. In the next screen, provide a Template name and a Template description.
  6. Click finish.

You should now have the option under My Templates when you add a new item to your project.

This class will be  useful and will save you and your team some typing when you are in the class creation phase of your project and you are creating all your Serializable classes.


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Changing the prop snippet for creating a Property in C#

Ok, so it is very common for the c# member variables to start with either an _ (underscore) or an m.  So when creating a property, you can save a lot of time by changing it to assume this as well.

For example, your class may look as follows:

namespace AgentConfigurationPlugin
{
    public class Class1
    {
        #region Member Variables
        String _MemberString;
        int _MemberInt;
        #endregion

        #region Constructors

        /*
		 * The default constructor
 		 */
        public Class1()
        {
        }

        #endregion

        #region Properties
        public String MemberString
        {
            get { return _MemberString; }
            set { _MemberString = value; }
        }

        public int Memberint
        {
            get { return _MemberInt; }
            set { _MemberInt = value; }
        }
        #endregion
    }
}

Note: I use the _ character even though it is hard to type (being up to the right of my pinky finger), so if you prefer, use the letter “m”, which is easy to type (being just below my pointer finger) and it also stands for “member variable”.

        #region Member Variables
        String mMemberString;
        int mMemberInt;
        #endregion

Anyway, whether it is an “m” or “_” or any other character, it is common to prefix member variables. So it would be useful if the property snippet assumed that prefix character as well.

The default snippet for creating a Property is located here:

C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio 9.0\VC#\Snippets\1033\Visual C#\prop.snippet

The contents looks as follows.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<CodeSnippets  xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/VisualStudio/2005/CodeSnippet">
	<CodeSnippet Format="1.0.0">
		<Header>
			<Title>prop</Title>
			<Shortcut>prop</Shortcut>
			<Description>Code snippet for an automatically implemented property</Description>
			<Author>Microsoft Corporation</Author>
			<SnippetTypes>
				<SnippetType>Expansion</SnippetType>
			</SnippetTypes>
		</Header>
		<Snippet>
			<Declarations>
				<Literal>
					<ID>type</ID>
					<ToolTip>Property type</ToolTip>
					<Default>int</Default>
				</Literal>
				<Literal>
					<ID>property</ID>
					<ToolTip>Property name</ToolTip>
					<Default>MyProperty</Default>
				</Literal>
			</Declarations>
			<Code Language="csharp"><![CDATA[public $type$ $property$ { get; set; }$end$]]>
			</Code>
		</Snippet>
	</CodeSnippet>
</CodeSnippets>

Change it to be like this:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<CodeSnippets  xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/VisualStudio/2005/CodeSnippet">
	<CodeSnippet Format="1.0.0">
		<Header>
			<Title>prop</Title>
			<Shortcut>prop</Shortcut>
			<Description>Code snippet for an automatically implemented property</Description>
			<Author>Microsoft Corporation</Author>
			<SnippetTypes>
				<SnippetType>Expansion</SnippetType>
			</SnippetTypes>
		</Header>
		<Snippet>
			<Declarations>
				<Literal>
					<ID>type</ID>
					<ToolTip>Property type</ToolTip>
					<Default>int</Default>
				</Literal>
				<Literal>
					<ID>property</ID>
					<ToolTip>Property name</ToolTip>
					<Default>MyProperty</Default>
				</Literal>
			</Declarations>
			<Code Language="csharp"><![CDATA[public $type$ $property$
		{
    			get { return _$property$; }
    			set { _$property$ = value; }
		}
$end$]]>
			</Code>
		</Snippet>
	</CodeSnippet>
</CodeSnippets>

The key section that fixes this is:

			<Code Language="csharp"><![CDATA[public $type$ $property$
		{
    			get { return _$property$; }
    			set { _$property$ = value; }
		}
$end$]]>

Or if you use “m” instead of “_” as I do, of course you would replace the “_” with an “m”.

			<Code Language="csharp"><![CDATA[public $type$ $property$
		{
    			get { return m$property$; }
    			set { m$property$ = value; }
		}
$end$]]>

Now when you create a member variable and then a property that matches it exactly except for the prefix character, the works is done for you, making you a more efficient programmer.

You may want to change the propg snippet as well.


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How to query a SQL database in C#?

How to query a SQL database in C#? or How to execute a database query against a database in C#?

Having used other languages where this is much simpler, I was surprised at how “not simple” this was in C#. I expected it to be a little more complex than in some scripting language such as PHP, but it was way more complex.

It is nice to run the Query and store the results in a DataTable, so that is what my example shows.

There are a few simple steps to remember.

  1. Create a String to hold the database connection string.
    (Note: If you don’t know the proper format for a connection string use SqlConnectionBuilder.)
  2. Create a SQL connection object.
  3. Open the SQL connection.
  4. Create a String to hold the query.
  5. Create a SqlCommand object and pass the constructor the connection string and the query string.
  6. Use the above SqlCommand object to create a SqlDataReader object.
  7. Create a DataTable object to hold all the data returned by the query.
  8. Use the DataTable.Load(SqlDataReader) function to put the results of the query into a DataTable.
  9. Do something with the data in your DataTable here. For example, it is common to use a foreach loop to do something with each row.
  10. Close the SQL connection.

Here is how I do it:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Data;
using System.Data.SqlClient;

namespace CountRows
{
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            // Create a String to hold the database connection string.
            // NOTE: Put in a real database connection string here or runtime won't work
            string sdwConnectionString = @"Data Source = ServerName; user id=UserName; password=P@sswd!; Initial Catalog = DatabaseName;";

            // Create a connection
            SqlConnection sdwDBConnection = new SqlConnection(sdwConnectionString);

            // Open the connection
            sdwDBConnection.Open();

            // Create a String to hold the query.
            string query = "SELECT * FROM MyTable";

            // Create a SqlCommand object and pass the constructor the connection string and the query string.
            SqlCommand queryCommand = new SqlCommand(query, sdwDBConnection);

            // Use the above SqlCommand object to create a SqlDataReader object.
            SqlDataReader queryCommandReader = queryCommand.ExecuteReader();

            // Create a DataTable object to hold all the data returned by the query.
            DataTable dataTable = new DataTable();

            // Use the DataTable.Load(SqlDataReader) function to put the results of the query into a DataTable.
            dataTable.Load(queryCommandReader);

            // Example 1 - Print your  Column Headers
            String columns = string.Empty;
            foreach (DataColumn column in dataTable.Columns)
            {
                columns += column.ColumnName + " | ";
            }
            Console.WriteLine(columns);

            // Example 2 - Print the first 10 row of data
            int topRows = 10;
            for (int i = 0; i < topRows; i++)
            {
                String rowText = string.Empty;
                foreach (DataColumn column in dataTable.Columns)
                {
                    rowText += dataTable.Rows[i][column.ColumnName] + " | ";
                }
                Console.WriteLine(rowText);
            }

            // Close the connection
            sdwDBConnection.Close();
        }
    }
}

So now the results are stored in a DataTable.

You can now access each row of data using the DataTable.Rows collection.

 

Return to ADO.NET and Database with C#

How to get your project's version dynamically in C#?

Ok, so I wanted to create a little Help | About page that looks like this.

MyProgram 1.0.0.5

Author: Jared Barneck

Contributors: John, Mike, Mark, Tom, Bill, Jane, Ryan, Josh

I don’t really want to have to remember to change the version in the help file with each release, so I wanted to get the version dynamically.

Turns out that you can get the version as a string with a single line of code:

String theVersion = System.Reflection.Assembly.GetExecutingAssembly().GetName().Version.ToString();

Once you have the version as a string, you can display it how you want.

Tutorial – Binding one element property to another

The properties of WPF elements can be bound to properties of other WPF Elements. Lets do some simple examples of binding one element to another.

For this tutorial, I assume you are in Visual Studio 2008.  I assume that you already know how to create a new Project and choose WPF Application.  All examples assume you have a new WPF Application.

I am the believer that one example isn’t enough, so I am going to give you three examples:

Example 1 – Binding and Element’s property to CheckBox.IsChecked

This example will demonstrate binding a Button‘s IsEnabled property to a CheckBox‘s IsChecked property.

Step 1 – Add the elements

  1. Add two items from the Toolbox:
    • CheckBox
    • Button

    The Button is named button1 and the CheckBox is named checkBox1.

  2. Change the text of the checkBox1 to “Enable button”.  This can be done either in the Properties or in the XAML.

Step 2 – Adding Binding to the Button

  1. In the XAML, locate the button1 element.
  2. Add the following to the button1 element:IsEnabled="{Binding ElementName=checkBox1, Path=IsChecked}"In your project, ElementName could be any item. In this example, we only have two elements so far: button1, and checkBox1.The XAML now looks like this (only two new lines exist):
    <Window x:Class="BindingATextBoxToASlider.Window1"
        xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
        xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
        Title="Window1" Height="300" Width="300">
        <Grid>
            <Button Content="Button" Height="23" Margin="12,34,416,0" Name="button1" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="75" IsEnabled="{Binding ElementName=checkBox1, Path=IsChecked}"/>
            <CheckBox Content="CheckBox" Height="16" Margin="12,12,408,0" Name="checkBox1" VerticalAlignment="Top" />
        </Grid>
    </Window>
    
  3. Compile and run your program.
  4. Check and uncheck the box an watch the binding do its work as it enables and disables the button.

Ok, so that was pretty cool. We have a simple example of binding one Element to another.

You can shoot yourself in the foot or Don’t be stupid!

Yes, you can shoot yourself in the foot by doing something stupid.

You could bind an element to itself. Let’s try it just so you can see it happen.

Add the same binding you added to button1 to checkBox1.

Compile and see what happens.

Example 2 – Binding and Element’s property to Slider.Value

This example uses a Slider and a TextBox.

Step 1 – Add the elements

  1. Add two items from the Toolbox:
    • TextBox
    • Slider

    The Slider is named slider1 and the TextBox is named textBox1.

Step 2 – Adding Binding to the TextBox

  1. In the XAML, locate the textBox1 element.
  2. Add the following to the textBox1 element:Text="{Binding ElementName=slider1, Path=Value}"ElementName can be any item. In this example, we only have two elements so far: slider1, and textBox1.The XAML now looks like this (only two new lines exist):
    <Window x:Class="BindingATextBoxToASlider.Window1"
        xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
        xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
        Title="Window1" Height="300" Width="300">
        <Grid>
           <TextBox Height="23" Margin="79,62,99,0" Name="textBox1" VerticalAlignment="Top" Text="{Binding ElementName=slider1, Path=Value}"/>
            <Slider Height="22" Margin="79,34,99,0" Name="slider1" VerticalAlignment="Top" />
        </Grid>
    </Window>
    
  3. Compile and run your program.
  4. Slide the slider and watch the binding do its work as its value is displayed in the textBox1 as it changes.

Calculations in XAML Bindings are Unsupported

Ok, so maybe you want to try to do calculations in the XAML Binding. It doesn’t work.

You can enter this and while it will compile, the Binding won’t work:

Text="{Binding ElementName=slider1, Path=(int)Value}"

You can enter this and while it will compile, the Binding won’t work:

Text="{Binding ElementName=slider1, Path=Value + 1}"

Example 3 – Binding and Element’s property to CheckBox.IsChecked

Ok, lets do a slight more complex example. We are going to have more than two elements. We are going to have a ListBox that contains a list of items (ListBoxItems). We are going to have a TextBox that displays the content of the selected item.

Step 1 – Add the elements

  1. Add two items from the Toolbox:
    • TextBox
    • ListBox
  2. Add multiple items to listBox1. This can be done either in the XAML or by clicking on the button for Items in the Properties of the listBox1.

Step 2 – Adding Binding to the TextBox

  1. In the XAML, locate the textBox1 element.
  2. Add the following to the textBox1 element:Text="{Binding ElementName=listBox1, Path=SelectedItem.Content}"Notice that we are using a property of a property for the Path. This is allowed. SelectedItem is a property of listBox1, and Content is a property of SelectedItem.The XAML now looks like this (only two new lines exist):
    <Window x:Class="BindingATextBoxToAListBoxSelectedItem.Window1"
        xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
        xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
        Title="Window1" Height="300" Width="300">
        <Grid>
            <TextBox Height="23" Margin="12,23,12,0" Name="textBox1" VerticalAlignment="Top" Text="{Binding ElementName=listBox1, Path=SelectedItem.Content}"/>
            <ListBox Margin="12,52,12,110" Name="listBox1">
                <ListBoxItem>c:</ListBoxItem>
                <ListBoxItem>d:</ListBoxItem>
                <ListBoxItem>e:</ListBoxItem>
                <ListBoxItem>f:</ListBoxItem>
                <ListBoxItem>g:</ListBoxItem>
                <ListBoxItem>h:</ListBoxItem>
            </ListBox>
        </Grid>
    </Window>
    
  3. Compile and run your program.
  4. Select different items in the list and watch the textBox1 change to display the content of the selected item.

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WPF Data Binding Tutorial

Introduction

This document assumes that you understand the concepts of object oriented programming and more specifically with C# programming, such as Classes or Objects, Methods, Properties, Events, etc. If not, it will be much harder to follow along.

This tutorial will cover the basics of data Binding in a WPF application. When you are done with this tutorial, you should be able to create a basic WPF-based graphical program that uses Binding. We will cover the different types of data Binding as well as what works and sometimes what doesn’t.

What is data Binding?

The idea of data Binding is to link a variable of any Type (int, string, object, etc…) to a graphical object’s Property that has the same type.

For example, lets say you have a Button object called myButton in your GUI like this: . The words “Click Me!” is a string property in the Button object: myButton.Text.

Imagine you have a string variable called strProperty in some part of your code that on its own has no way to interact with your GUI code. Lets say you want to change the myButton.Text property to match that string variable. Binding allows the button’s text string to always match a string property in some other object not really related to your GUI so if you change strProperty to equal “Enable” your button text will look like . If you then change the strProperty to “Disable” the button text will automatically change to be without out your back end code having to make any interaction with the GUI on its own.

Without Binding, you would have to write code yourself that would interact with the GUI and update the myButton.Text property when ever you update the string in code. In order to do this without Binding, you would also have to intermingle your background code with your GUI code. This can make it difficult to update or modify your GUI because GUI code is strung throughout all parts of your application. You don’t just have to update your GUI, you have to update all your code that interacts with the GUI.

So Binding allows you to have a back end code that is independent of the GUI. This is especially useful when the GUI needs to be updated or improved or when multiple GUIs exists (skins) and you can switch between them.

There are programming styles associated with developing a GUI separate from the back-end. Two of which are Model-View-Control (MVC) or Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM). This tutorial is not going to cover these, however, it is probably wise for you become familiar with these.

However, there is no reason you are limited to Binding to back end code. You can bind to code that is in the WPF GUI and very powerful applications can be written with little to no back end code.

Requirements for data Binding in WPF

In order to using data Binding, you should have the following requirements:

  1. Your project should be a WPF Application, or your project should include a WPF Window or WPF Control.
  2. Objects your elements bind to should implement System.ComponentModel.INotifyPropertyChanged.

Types of data Binding and resources

There is are multiple types of Binding. Elements bind to some type of resource and there are multiple types of resources. Static and Dynamic resource binding which uses the StaticResource Markup Extension or the DynamicResource Markup Extension.

The Binding source can also be “any public property, including properties of other controls, common language runtime (CLR) objects, XAML elements, ADO.NET DataSets, XML Fragments, and so forth.” (Reference: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/cc163299.aspx).

Go to next: 1.1 Binding one element property to another


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How to add a dynamic image and/or a dynamic button to a DataGrid row using a DataGridTemplateColumn and a DataTemplateSelector?

How to add a dynamic image and/or a dynamic button to a row using WPFToolKit DataGrid and DataGridTemplateColumns?

To start, I have a WPF project in Visual Studio 2008. I have installed the WPFToolKit and have added a reference to it in my project.

Often you want to display a DataGrid, but you don’t want to simply display it as is, you want to be able to enhance it and add functionality to it, such as adding an image to the start of each row or adding a button on each row.

Ok, so I have a table created using a DataTable that looks as follows:

IntValStrVal
0normal
1warning
2error

I am passing this to a WFPToolKit DataGrid.

As I pass this to a Datagrid I want to add two columns:

  1. I want to add an image that is different if it is normal, warning, or error.
  2. I want to add a button only if it is warning or error.

So the visual would look as follows:

ImageIntValStrValAction
0normal
1warning
2error

Step 1. Install prerequisites: Install Visual Studio 2008, and download and install the WPFToolkit.

You probably already have this done, and there are no steps for provided for these.

Step 2. Create a new WPF project in Visual studio 2008 and design the WPF interface

So once my project was created and the reference to WPFToolKit added, I then changed the XAML on my default Window1 class.

  1. I needed to add a reference to the toolkit here as well.
  2. I needed to add resources for my button.
  3. I needed to add three separate resources for my images.
  4. I needed to add a DataGrid.

Window1.xaml

<Window x:Class="DataGridAddButtonAndImageColumns.Window1"
    xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
    xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
    xmlns:wpftk="http://schemas.microsoft.com/wpf/2008/toolkit"
    Title="Window1" Height="300" Width="300">
    <Window.Resources>
        <DataTemplate x:Key="FixThisTemplate">
            <Button Name="mButtonFixThis" Click="ButtonFixThis_Click">Fix This</Button>
        </DataTemplate>
        <DataTemplate x:Key="NormalTemplate">
        </DataTemplate>
        <DataTemplate x:Key="StatusTemplateNormal" x:Name="mNormalImage">
            <Image Width="16" Height="16" Source="C:\Users\jbarneck\Documents\QuickTests\DataGridAddButtonAndImageColumns\DataGridAddButtonAndImageColumns\bin\Debug\Normal.png" />
        </DataTemplate>
        <DataTemplate x:Key="StatusTemplateWarning" x:Name="mWarningImage">
            <Image Width="16" Height="16" Source="C:\Users\jbarneck\Documents\QuickTests\DataGridAddButtonAndImageColumns\DataGridAddButtonAndImageColumns\bin\Debug\Warning.png" />
        </DataTemplate>
        <DataTemplate x:Key="StatusTemplateError" x:Name="mErrorImage">
            <Image Width="16" Height="16" Source="C:\Users\jbarneck\Documents\QuickTests\DataGridAddButtonAndImageColumns\DataGridAddButtonAndImageColumns\bin\Debug\Error.png" />
        </DataTemplate>
    </Window.Resources>
    <Grid>
        <wpftk:DataGrid Name="mDataGrid" ItemsSource="{Binding}" CanUserAddRows="False" IsReadOnly="True"></wpftk:DataGrid>
    </Grid>
</Window>

Step 3 – Create the data

The data can come from anywhere but for this basic example, I am just statically creating a DataTable in the Constructor.  I also added a property for the DataTable and the DataTable.DefaultView.

Data.cs

using System.Data;

namespace DataGridAddButtonAndImageColumns
{
    public class Data
    {
        #region Member Variables
        private DataTable mTable;
        #endregion

        #region Constructors

        /*
		 * The default constructor
 		 */
        public Data()
        {
            mTable = new DataTable();
            mTable.Columns.Add("IntVal", typeof(int));
            mTable.Columns.Add("StrVal", typeof(string));
            DataRow row0 = mTable.NewRow();
            row0["IntVal"] = 0;
            row0["StrVal"] = "normal";
            mTable.Rows.Add(row0);

            DataRow row1 = mTable.NewRow();
            row1["IntVal"] = 1;
            row1["StrVal"] = "warning";
            mTable.Rows.Add(row1);

            DataRow row2 = mTable.NewRow();
            row2["IntVal"] = 2;
            row2["StrVal"] = "error";
            mTable.Rows.Add(row2);

        }

        #endregion

        #region Properties
        public DataTable Table
        {
            get { return mTable; }
            set { mTable = value; }
        }

        public DataView View
        {
            get { return mTable.DefaultView; }
        }
        #endregion

        #region Functions
        #endregion

        #region Enums
        #endregion
    }
}

Step 4 – Create a ViewModel that implements INotifyPropertyChanged.

So creating a ViewModel is not exactly required but there really is benefit to the Model-View-ViewModel design pattern, so I will attempt to follow it even though this is a simple example application.

  1. I created a new object called DataViewModel.
  2. I implemented the INotifyPropertyChanged interface (though for this small application it isn’t used, I don’t want to leave it out cause you might need it for your application.)
  3. I changed the constructor to take the Data object I designed in the previous step.
  4. I expose the Table and the Table’s view as properties.

DataViewModel.cs

using System;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Data;

namespace DataGridAddButtonAndImageColumns
{
    public class DataViewModel : INotifyPropertyChanged
    {
        #region Member Variables
        readonly Data mData;
        #endregion

        #region Constructors

        /*
		 * The default constructor
 		 */
        public DataViewModel(Data inData)
        {
            mData = inData;
        }

        #endregion

        #region Properties
        public DataView View
        {
            get { return mData.View; }
        }

        public DataTable Table
        {
            get { return mData.Table; }
        }
        #endregion

        #region Functions

        #endregion

        #region Enums
        #endregion

        #region INotifyPropertyChanged Members

        public event PropertyChangedEventHandler PropertyChanged;

        protected virtual void OnPropertyChanged(string propertyName)
        {
            if (this.PropertyChanged != null)
                this.PropertyChanged(this, new PropertyChangedEventArgs(propertyName));
        }

        #endregion
    }
}

Step 5 – Add code to pass the DataTable to the DataGrid

So in the Window1.xaml.cs file, I create a new DataViewModel object and pass it a new Data object.  I then assign the DataTable to the DataGrid’s DataContext object. My class now looks as follows.

Window1.xaml.cs

using System.Windows;
using System.Windows.Controls;

namespace DataGridAddButtonAndImageColumns
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Interaction logic for Window1.xaml
    /// </summary>
    public partial class Window1 : Window
    {

        #region Member Variables
        #endregion

        #region Contructor
        public Window1()
        {
            InitializeComponent();
            DataViewModel model = new DataViewModel(new Data());

            // It is ok to pass either the DataTable or the DataView
            // so both lines below work, however I am only using one:
            //
            // mDataGrid.DataContext = model.View;
            // mDataGrid.DataContext = model.Table;

            mDataGrid.DataContext = model.Table;
        }
        #endregion

        #region Functions
        private void ButtonFixThis_Click(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            // Do something here
        }
        #endregion

        #region Properties
        #endregion
    }
}

Now I can compile and run see my simple DataGrid.

IntValStrVal
0normal
1warning
2error

Step 6 – Create the DataTemplateSelectors

I am going to use two DataTemplateSelector and I want them to share a base class, so first, I am going to create a base class for them.

  1. I inherit DataTemplateSelector.
  2. I add a function to find the parent Window1 object.

BaseDataTemplateSelector.cs

using System.Windows;
using System.Windows.Controls;
using System.Windows.Media;

namespace DataGridAddButtonAndImageColumns
{
    public class BaseDataTemplateSelector : DataTemplateSelector
    {
        #region Member Variables
        #endregion

        #region Constructors
        /*
		 * The default constructor
 		 */
        public BaseDataTemplateSelector()
        {
        }
        #endregion

        #region Properties
        #endregion

        #region Functions
        protected Window1 GetWindow1(DependencyObject inContainer)
        {
            DependencyObject c = inContainer;
            while (true)
            {
                DependencyObject p = VisualTreeHelper.GetParent(c);

                if (c is Window1)
                {
                    //mSectionControl = c;
                    return c as Window1;
                }
                else
                {
                    c = p;
                }
            }
        }
        #endregion
    }
}

Now I create an ActionDataTemplateSelector and a StatusImageDataTemplateSelector.

The ActionDataTemplateSelector will overload the SelectTemplate function and correctly select the Fix button resource if the status is warning or error.

ActionDataTemplateSelector.cs

using System.Data;
using System.Windows;

namespace DataGridAddButtonAndImageColumns
{
    public class ActionDataTemplateSelector : BaseDataTemplateSelector
    {
        #region Constructors
        /*
		 * The default constructor
 		 */
        public ActionDataTemplateSelector()
        {
        }
        #endregion

        #region Functions
        public override DataTemplate SelectTemplate(object inItem, DependencyObject inContainer)
        {
            DataRowView row = inItem as DataRowView;

            if (row != null)
            {
                Window1 w = GetWindow1(inContainer);
                if (row.DataView.Table.Columns.Contains("IntVal"))
                {
                    if ((int)row["IntVal"] > 0)
                    {
                        return (DataTemplate)w.FindResource("FixThisTemplate");
                    }
                }
                return (DataTemplate)w.FindResource("NormalTemplate");
            }
            return null;
        }
        #endregion
    }
}

The StatusImageDataTemplateSelector also overloads the SelectTempate function and selects the correct image for the status.

StatusImageDataTemplateSelector .cs

using System.Data;
using System.Windows;

namespace DataGridAddButtonAndImageColumns
{
    public class StatusImageDataTemplateSelector : BaseDataTemplateSelector
    {
        #region Constructors

        /*
		 * The default constructor
 		 */
        public StatusImageDataTemplateSelector()
        {
        }
        #endregion

        #region Functions
        public override DataTemplate SelectTemplate(object inItem, DependencyObject inContainer)
        {
            DataRowView row = inItem as DataRowView;

            if (row != null)
            {
                if (row.DataView.Table.Columns.Contains("IntVal"))
                {
                    Window1 w = GetWindow1(inContainer);
                    int status = (int)row["IntVal"];
                    if (status == 0)
                    {
                        return (DataTemplate)w.FindResource("StatusTemplateNormal");
                    }
                    if (status == 1)
                    {
                        return (DataTemplate)w.FindResource("StatusTemplateWarning");
                    }
                    if (status == 2)
                    {
                        return (DataTemplate)w.FindResource("StatusTemplateError");
                    }
                }
            }
            return null;
        }
        #endregion
    }
}

Step 7 – Create functions that add the new columns and have the constructor call each function.

Each function must:

  1. Create a new DataGridTemplateColumn.
  2. Assign a string for the Header.
  3. Create a new DataTemplateSelector and assign it to the DataGridTemplateColumn’s CellTemplateSelector.
  4. Add the new DataGridTemplateColumn to the DataGrid.
        public void CreateActionButtonColumn()
        {
            DataGridTemplateColumn actionColumn = new DataGridTemplateColumn { CanUserReorder = false, Width = 85, CanUserSort = true };
            actionColumn.Header = "Action";
            actionColumn.CellTemplateSelector = new ActionDataTemplateSelector();
            mDataGrid.Columns.Add(actionColumn);
        }

        public void CreateStatusColumnWithImages()
        {
            DataGridTemplateColumn statusImageColumn = new DataGridTemplateColumn { CanUserReorder = false, Width = 85, CanUserSort = false };;
            statusImageColumn.Header = "Image";
            statusImageColumn.CellTemplateSelector = new StatusImageDataTemplateSelector();
            mDataGrid.Columns.Insert(0, statusImageColumn);
        }

Don’t forget to call the functions in the constructor.

        public Window1()
        {
            InitializeComponent();
            DataViewModel model = new DataViewModel(new Data());

            // It is ok to pass either the DataTable or the DataView
            // so both lines below work, however I am only using one:
            //
            // mDataGrid.DataContext = model.View;
            // mDataGrid.DataContext = model.Table;

            mDataGrid.DataContext = model.Table;
            CreateActionButtonColumn();
            CreateStatusColumnWithImages();
        }

Ok, so now you are finished. This should be working for you if you compile and run the program.

ImageIntValStrValAction
0normal
1warning
2error

Options for handling the images without using a static path

The images were called statically in the above example, however, that will be problematic in actual implementation as each program is installed in a different location and the install location can usually be chosen by a user. You have two options to resolve this, and I will show you how to do both:

  1. Embedding your images
  2. Using image files located in a relative path

Either option work.  The second option makes branding a little easier as code doesn’t have to be recompiled with new images to change the images, because the image files can simply be replaced.

Embedding your images
So you can embed your images as resources and use the embedded resources instead. To embed them, do this:

  1. In Visual Studio under your project, create a folder called Images.
  2. Copy your images into that folder.
  3. In the XAML, change each of the image resource lines as shown
            <Image Width="16" Height="16" Source="Images\Warning.png" />

Using image files located in a relative path
I decided to NOT embed my images but instead solve this by using a relative path. My preference is for the images to come from actual files in an images directory that is relative to the directory from which the executable is launched:

\MyFolder\
\MyFolder\program.exe
\MyFolder\Images\
\MyFolder\Images\Normal.png
\MyFolder\Images\Warning.png
\MyFolder\Images\Error.png

So in order to use relative paths, I found that I could create another object that inherits IValueConverter.

Here is what I had to do to create this:

  1. Create a new class called PathConverter.
  2. Make it inherit IValueConverter
  3. Implement the IValueConverter interface.
  4. Add code to the Convert function.
  5. Cast the “value” parameter to a DataRowView as each DataRow will be the calling object that is passed in as “value”.
  6. Get the relative path using System.IO.Path.GetDirectoryName(System.Reflection.Assembly.GetExecutingAssembly().Location).
  7. Get the status value from the DataRowView and add a couple of if statements that return the relative + the image file path.
using System;
using System.Data;
using System.Globalization;
using System.Windows.Data;

namespace DataGridAddButtonAndImageColumns
{
    public class PathConverter : IValueConverter
    {
        #region Constructors
        /*
		 * The default constructor
 		 */
        public PathConverter()
        {
        }
        #endregion

        #region IValueConverter Members
        public object Convert(object value, Type targetType, object parameter, CultureInfo culture)
        {
            DataRowView row = value as DataRowView;
            if (row != null)
            {
                if (row.DataView.Table.Columns.Contains("IntVal"))
                {
                    String workingDirectory = System.IO.Path.GetDirectoryName(System.Reflection.Assembly.GetExecutingAssembly().Location);
                    int status = (int)row["IntVal"];
                    if (status == 0)
                    {
                        return workingDirectory + @"Images\Normal.png";
                    }
                    if (status == 1)
                    {
                        return workingDirectory + @"Images\Warning.png";
                    }
                    if (status == 2)
                    {
                        return workingDirectory + @"Images\Error.png";
                    }
                }
            }
            return null;
        }

        public object ConvertBack(object value, Type targetType, object parameter, CultureInfo culture)
        {
            throw new System.NotImplementedException();
        }
        #endregion
    }
}

Ok, I am not done yet.  I now needed to edit the XAML again.  here is what we do to the XAML:

  1. I add an xmlns reference to load the local namespace.
  2. I add in the windows resources and instance of the PathConverter.
  3. I change the Image Source value to: Source=”{Binding Converter={StaticResource ImagePathConverter}}”
<Window x:Class="DataGridAddButtonAndImageColumns.Window1"
    xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
    xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
    xmlns:wpftk="http://schemas.microsoft.com/wpf/2008/toolkit"
    xmlns:local="clr-namespace:DataGridAddButtonAndImageColumns"
    Title="Window1" Height="300" Width="300">
    <Window.Resources>
        <local:PathConverter x:Key="ImagePathConverter" />
        <DataTemplate x:Key="FixThisTemplate">
            <Button Name="mButtonFixThis" Click="ButtonFixThis_Click">Fix This</Button>
        </DataTemplate>
        <DataTemplate x:Key="NormalTemplate">
        </DataTemplate>
        <DataTemplate x:Key="StatusTemplateNormal" x:Name="mNormalImage">
            <Image Width="16" Height="16" Margin="3,0" Source="{Binding Converter={StaticResource ImagePathConverter}}" />
            <!--<Image Width="16" Height="16" Source="Images\Normal.png" />--><!-- Embedded -->
        </DataTemplate>
        <DataTemplate x:Key="StatusTemplateWarning" x:Name="mWarningImage">
            <Image Width="16" Height="16" Margin="3,0" Source="{Binding Converter={StaticResource ImagePathConverter}}" />
            <!--<Image Width="16" Height="16" Source="Images\Warning.png" />--><!-- Embedded -->
        </DataTemplate>
        <DataTemplate x:Key="StatusTemplateError" x:Name="mErrorImage">
            <Image Width="16" Height="16" Margin="3,0" Source="{Binding Converter={StaticResource ImagePathConverter}}" />
            <!--<Image Width="16" Height="16" Source="Images\Error.png" />--><!-- Embedded -->
        </DataTemplate>
    </Window.Resources>
    <Grid>
        <wpftk:DataGrid Name="mDataGrid" ItemsSource="{Binding}" CanUserAddRows="False" IsReadOnly="True"></wpftk:DataGrid>
    </Grid>
</Window>

Ok, now we should be done.

Make sure to create the Images folder and add the images in the location where you exectuable runs. You may have to add the images folder to both the debug and release directories or otherwise resolve this, else you will get an exception when the images are not found.

Note: I wrote an improved version of this article and published it here:
http://www.codeproject.com/KB/WPF/AddImageToColumnDynamicly.aspx


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